In response to a petition filed by an Indian charity, the Supreme Court of India directed the governments of all States and Union Territories to ensure that all schools, whether private or state-run, provide proper toilet facilities, drinking water, sufficient classrooms and capable teaching staff. The court held that, under the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act (2009) and the Indian Constitution, central, state and local governments have an obligation to ensure that all schools, both public and private, have adequate infrastructure.
In this case, a resident of Uttar Pradesh state challenged a notification issued by the Karnataka government that permitted private medical colleges to charge higher fees to students who were not allocated 'government seats'. The Supreme Court of India held that the charging of a ‘capitation fee’ by the private educational institutions violated the right to education, as implied from the right to life and human dignity, and the right to equal protection of the law.
The South African Department of Basic Education has indicated that as many as 489 036 children with disabilities of a school going age are not attending any school at all. The 2013 General Household Survey indicates that of the children with disabilities who do not attend school, 67% report severe disabilities and would therefore require placement in special schools.
The disappearance of 43 students of the rural Teacher Education School (Rural Normal School) in September 2014 in Ayotzinapa has deeply touched the heart of Mexican people. It has awaken global solidarity, and has shaken Peña Nieto’s Government. The context in which this takes place is important: a context in which the right to education in rural areas has always been at risk, and a human rights crisis that has gripped in the country over the last decade.
The Guide identifies equality and non-discrimination strategies that NGOs, lawyers and activists may employ in seeking to advance economic and social rights (ESRs) before courts. It is also accompanied by an online Compendium of useful cases in which equality and non-discrimination concepts and approaches have been employed to advance ESRs.
On December 10th, we celebrate Human Rights Day in order “to bring to the attention of ‘people of the world’ the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) as the common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations” (UN General Assembly, 1950).
Adopted on 10 December 1948, the UDHR is the first international document, which formally sets out fundamental human rights to be universally protected.
In 2009, India enacted the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, which provides for free and compulsory education to all children aged 6 to 14. However, the evidence presented in this report indicates that despite the 3 year deadline to implement the key provisions of the Act, it has yet to be adequately implemented.