The second edition of the Global Education Monitoring Report (GEM Report) presents the latest evidence on global progress towards the education targets of the UN Sustainable Development Goals.

With hundreds of millions of people still not going to school, and many not achieving minimum skills at school, it is clear education systems are off track to achieve global goals. The marginalised currently bear the most consequences but also stand to benefit the most if policy-makers pay sufficient attention to their needs. Faced with these challenges, along with tight budgets and increased emphasis on results-oriented value for money, countries are searching for solutions. Increased accountability often tops the list.

The 2017/8 GEM Report shows the entire array of approaches to accountability in education. It ranges from countries unused to the concept, where violations of the right to education go unchallenged, to countries where accountability has become an end in itself instead of a means to inclusive, equitable and high-quality education and lifelong learning for all.

The report emphasises that education is a shared responsibility. While governments have primary responsibility, all actors – schools, teachers, parents, students, international organizations, private sector providers, civil society and the media – have a role in improving education systems. The report emphasises the importance of transparency and availability of information but urges caution in how data are used. It makes the case for avoiding accountability systems with a disproportionate focus on narrowly defined results and punitive sanctions. In an era of multiple accountability tools, the report provides clear evidence on those that are working and those that are not.

The COVID-19 pandemic and the responses of States thereto have had a very significant impact on the enjoyment of a wide range of social rights. The Council of Europe’s European Social Charter provides a framework for the measures that must be taken by States Parties to cope with the pandemic as it unfolds. The treaty also provides a necessary framework for the post-pandemic social and economic recovery as well as for preparation for and responses to possible future crises of this nature.

With the present statement the European Committee of Social Rights (ECSR) aims to highlight those Charter rights that are particularly engaged by the COVID-19 crisis. (It does not address the right to protection of health under Article 11 of the Charter, which was the subject of a separate statement adopted in April 20201 ). The statement provides guidance to States Parties, organisations of workers and employers, civil society and other key stakeholders by clarifying certain aspects of the Charter rights in question as they apply in the current crisis. 

Dans le présent rapport soumis en application des résolutions 8/4 et 44/3 du Conseil des droits de l’homme, la Rapporteuse spéciale sur le droit à l’éducation examine les dimensions culturelles du droit à l’éducation, éléments cruciaux de la réalisation du droit universel à une éducation inclusive et de qualité, telle que la préconise l’objectif de développement durable no 4. Dans son analyse, la Rapporteuse spéciale identifie, en prenant appui sur les nombreuses expériences nationales, des éléments propices au respect de la diversité et des droits culturels de chacun dans l’éducation: a) Valorisation des ressources culturelles présentes ; b) Participation à la vie éducationnelle de tous les acteurs pertinents, y compris les apprenants dans toute leur diversité ; c) Décentralisation en faveur des acteurs locaux et mise en place d’une certaine autonomie des écoles pour assurer la pertinence culturelle des apprentissages ; d) Méthodes d’observation participatives et systémiques ; e) Respect des libertés dans le champ éducationnel, notamment. La Rapporteuse spéciale invite à considérer le droit à l’éducation comme un droit culturel en tant que tel, c’est-à-dire comme le droit de chacun d’accéder aux ressources culturelles nécessaires pour développer librement son processus d’identification, vivre des relations dignes de reconnaissance mutuelle tout au long de son existence et affronter les défis cruciaux auxquels notre monde doit faire face, de s’adonner aux pratiques qui permettent de s’approprier ces ressources et d’y contribuer.

L’originalité de cette approche consiste à considérer la vie éducationnelle comme une relation vivante entre des acteurs (élèves, éducateurs, organisations et autres acteurs associés) et des ensembles de connaissances qui forment des ressources culturelles communes, porteuses « d’identité, de valeurs et de sens », sans lesquelles les acteurs ne peuvent rien.