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Transparent procedures include, inter alia, publicly available information about the requirements needed to apply for a teaching position for each level of education and the process for selecting the candidates

Comments:

Transparent and fair hiring procedures are essential to ensure that the best possible candidates are selected (which affects the quality of education), to prevent discriminatory practices in the hiring of teachers and to prevent corruption in the education system

Levels of disaggregation: Level of Education, Public/Private, Region

Key public financial documents include national and regional budgets, periodic reports on execution of the budgets, reports on distribution of resources by province or department

Comments:

Public access to key public financial documents related to education provides greater transparency and opportunity to monitor and hold government to account with regard to its education expenditure. The budgetary information publicly available should be sufficiently clear and comprehensive to allow members of civil society to effectively monitor service delivery resource flows and the allocation of funds in the education sectors

Human Rights Standards:

Article 19 (2) (3), International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; Article 10, European Convention on Human Rights; Article 13, American Convention on Human Rights; Article 9 (1), African Charter; Article 32 (1), Arab Charter; Article 23, ASEAN Human Rights Declaration

This indicator measures the estimated proportion of State activities in education funded through extrabudgetary sources, as a share of total public spending in education

Comments:

Where the use of extrabudgetary funds play a large role in resource allocation, the ability to track government’s priorities and to hold the government accountable for the financing of education, may be compromised

Human Rights Standards:

Articles 13 (2) & 14 International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Article 28 (1), Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 24 (2), Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities; Article 7 (2) (c), ILO Convention 182; Article 17 (2), (Revised) European Social Charter; Article 13 (3), Protocol of San Salvador; Article 11 (3), African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, Article 13 (4), African Youth Charter; Article 41 (2), Arab Charter; Article 4, UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education

Common obstacles include, inter alia, not allowing civil society organisations to operate freely in the State, withholding information from civil society organisations that is necessary for monitoring the right to education and hindering access of these organisations to schools for monitoring purposes

Comments:

Civil society organisations can play an important ‘watchdog’ role to monitor and evaluate education policies and programmes, and to hold politicians and school officials to account for the delivery of good quality education in an equitable manner

Human Rights Standards:

Article 25 (a), International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

Comments:

Public access to data on education is essential for enabling civil society to participate in monitoring the right to education and holding the government accountable for the realisation of this right

Human Rights Standards:

Article 19 (2) (3), International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; Article 10, European Convention on Human Rights; Article 13, American Convention on Human Rights; Article 32 (1), Arab Charter; Article 23, ASEAN; Article 13, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Article 28, Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 17 (2), (Revised) European Social Charter; Article 13, Protocol of San Salvador; Article 11, African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child; Article 13, African Youth Charter; Article 41 (2), Arab Charter; Article 4, UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education

Comments:

Public access to these reports is essential for enabling civil society to participate in monitoring the right to education and holding the government accountable for the realisation of this right

Human Rights Standards:

Article 19 (2) (3), International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; Article 10, European Convention on Human Rights; Article 13, American Convention on Human Rights; Article 32 (1), Arab Charter; Article 23, ASEAN Human Rights Declaration; Article 13, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Article 28, Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 17 (2), (Revised) European Social Charter; Article 13, Protocol of San Salvador; Article 11, African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child; Article 13, African Youth Charter; Article 41 (2), Arab Charter; Article 4, UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education

Targeted programmes in the education sector are those that are not universal (ie that the beneficiaries are only a segment of the population) either because by its very nature a programme is meant to help a specific group (eg cash transfers to poor families to help them meet the various types of costs associated with education) or because the State does not have enough resources to provide at this stage to everybody in the education system

Comments:

Transparency about the criteria for targeted programmes is necessary to ensure that the implementation of those programmes is not discriminatory and to enable civil society to hold the government accountable for them

Comments:

This indicator is necessary to assess whether there is duplication and / or lack of clarity in division of roles between different levels of government which can often weaken accountability for the delivery of educational services

Human Rights Standards:

Article 25 (c), International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; Articles 13 (1) & (2), African Charter of Human and People's Rights; Article 23 (c), American Convention on Human Rights