Showing 36 Results


Net enrolment rate is the number of children of official school age (based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997) who are enrolled in school as a percentage of the population of the corresponding official school age    

Comments:

A high net enrolment rate (NER) denotes a high degree of enrolment in education by the official school-age population. NERs below 100% provide a measure of the proportion of primary school age children who are not enrolled at the primary level. This difference does not necessarily indicate the percentage of students who are not enrolled at all in education, since some children may be enrolled at other levels of education. When the NER is compared with the gross enrolment ratio (GER) the difference between the two ratios highlights the incidence of under-aged and over-aged enrolment. The data for this indicator should be disaggregated to measure relative enjoyment across and between groups, for example boys compared to girls, persons with disabilities compared to the general population and those living in different regions of the country. Inequalities in enjoyment may constitute discrimination (Source: Sustainable Development Knowledge Platform, Net Enrolment Rate in Primary Education)

Available data:

Edstats (SEARCH: Series > Topics > Primary > Enrolment Rates)

Levels of disaggregation: Gender, Income, Minority, Region, Urban/Rural, Minority, Persons with Disabilities, Persons with HIV/AIDS, Migrants, Refugees and IDPs, Persons in Detention, Child Labourers, Child Soldiers, Public/Private
Human Rights Standards:

Article 13 (2) (a), International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Article 28 (1) (a), Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 17 (2), (Revised) European Social Charter; Article 13 (3) (a), Protocol of San Salvador; Article 11 (3) (a), African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child; Article 41 (2), Arab Charter

GER is the ratio of total enrolment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that corresponds to the same level of education. GER can exceed 100% due to the inclusion of over-aged and under-aged students, because of early or late school entrance, and grade repetition. For the tertiary level, the population used is the 5-year age group starting from the official secondary school graduation age (Source: UIS, Education Indicators - Technical Guidelines: p.9)

Comments:

Gross enrolment ratio is widely used to show the general level of participation in a given level of education. It can also be used as a complementary indicator to net enrolment rate (NER) by indicating the extent of over-aged and under-aged enrolment. The data for this indicator should be disaggregated to measure relative enjoyment across and between groups, for example boys compared to girls, persons with disabilities compared to the general population and those living in different regions of the country. Inequalities in enjoyment may constitute discrimination (Source: UIS, Education Indicators - Technical Guidelines: p.9)

Available data:

Edstats

Levels of disaggregation: Level of Education, Gender, Income, Minority, Region, Urban/Rural, Persons with Disabilities, Persons with HIV/AIDS, Migrants, Refugees and IDPs, Persons in Detention, Child Labourers, Child Soldiers, Public/Private
Human Rights Standards:

Article 13 (2), International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Article 28 (1), Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 24 (2), Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities; Article 7 (2) (c), ILO Convention 182; Article 17 (2), (Revised) European Social Charter; Article 13 (3), Protocol of San Salvador; Article 11 (3), African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, Article 13 (4), African Youth Charter; Article 41 (2), Arab Charter; Article 4, UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education

Total primary (or secondary) school age children who are not enrolled (because they never enrolled or because they dropped-out) in primary or secondary education expressed as a percentage of the official school-age population corresponding to the primary (or secondary) level in a given school-year. Children enrolled in pre-primary education are excluded and considered out-of-school (Source: UIS)

Comments:

A high rate of out-of-school children indicates that the State is failing to achieve universal primary and secondary education. Data for this indicator should be disaggregated to show which groups are excluded from education. If the data show, for example, that girls are more likely to be out-of-school or that children with disabilities are less likely to be enrolled or drop-out than the general population, this is an indication that the State's efforts to achieve universal primary (and secondary education) are insufficient and in some cases, discriminatory

Available data:

UIS has data on out-of-school rates at the primary and lower secondary levels (Education>Out-of-school children). Alternatively, see Universal Primary and Secondary Education by 2030! But Where Do We Stand Today? - Explore the Data for a visual representation of UIS data. The All in School Initiative also provides data by region and the barriers to accessing education

Levels of disaggregation: Level of Education, Gender, Income, Minority, Region, Urban/Rural, Minority, Persons with Disabilities, Persons with HIV/AIDS, Migrants, Refugees and IDPs, Persons in Detention, Child Labourers, Child Soldiers
Human Rights Standards:

Article 13 (2), International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Article 28 (1), Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 24 (2), Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities; Article 7 (2) (c), ILO Convention 182; Article 17 (2), (Revised) European Social Charter; Article 13 (3), Protocol of San Salvador; Article 11 (3), African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, Article 13 (4), African Youth Charter; Article 41 (2), Arab Charter; Article 4, UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education

Primary completion rate is the percentage of students completing the last year of primary school. The UN defines it as: the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as percentage of the total population of the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary. The ratio can exceed 100% due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late / early and / or repeat grades

Comments:

A primary completion rate of less than 100% is indicative of a problem in the State's obligation to fulfil the right to free and compulsory primary education. The data for this indicator should be disaggregated to measure relative enjoyment across and between groups, for example boys compared to girls, persons with disabilities compared to the general population and those living in different regions of the country. Inequalities in enjoyment may constitute discrimination

Levels of disaggregation: Gender, Income, Minority, Region, Urban/Rural, Minority, Persons with Disabilities, Persons with HIV/AIDS, Migrants, Refugees and IDPs, Persons in Detention, Child Labourers, Child Soldiers, Public/Private
Human Rights Standards:

Article 13 (2) (a), International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Article 28 (1) (a) (e), Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 24 (2), Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities; Article 7 (2) (c), ILO Convention 182; Article 17 (2), (Revised) European Social Charter; Article 13 (3) (a) (d), Protocol of San Salvador; Article 11 (3) (a) (d), African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, Article 13 (4) (a) (c), African Youth Charter; Article 41 (2), Arab Charter; Article 4 (a), UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education

Percentage of population aged 15 years and over who can, with understanding, both read and write, a short simple statement on his / her everyday life. Generally, ‘literacy’ also encompasses ‘numeracy’, the ability to make simple arithmetic calculations (Source: UIS: p.3)

Comments:

A high illiteracy rate (or low literacy rate) suggests the existence of serious shortcomings in the primary education system and / or literacy programmes that have prevented a large proportion of the population from acquiring the ability to use the written word (and making simple arithmetic calculations) in daily life and to continue learning. It is important to remember that literacy rates look backwards, if you encounter a low literacy rate you should make an assessment of factors that may have affected education in the past, such as inadequate financing, armed conflict and other emergency situations, etc. The data for this indicator should be disaggregated to measure relative enjoyment across and between groups, for example boys compared to girls, persons with disabilities compared to the general population and those living in different regions of the country. Inequalities in enjoyment may constitute discrimination

Available data:

Edstats 

Levels of disaggregation: Gender, Income, Minority, Region, Urban/Rural, Persons with Disabilities, Persons with HIV/AIDS, Migrants, Refugees and IDPs, Age
Human Rights Standards:

Article 28 (3), Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 13 (2), International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Article 10 (e), Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women; Article 41 (1), Arab Charter; Article 12 (2) (a), Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa; Article 13 (4) (g), African Youth Charter; Articles 34 (h) & 50, Charter of the Organisation of American States

Mean performance on the reading scale is the mean reading score for students in national or international assessments

Comments:

A low mean value may be indicative of a general problem in the quality of education. The data for this indicator should be disaggregated to measure relative enjoyment across and between groups, for example boys compared to girls and those living in different regions of the country. Inequalities in enjoyment may constitute discrimination. For this indicator it is important, when monitoring the right to education of persons with disabilities, to disaggregate the data by type of disability because for some types of disability there should be equality of learning outcomes, whilst for others measuring learning outcomes is not an adequate measure of the quality of education

Available data:

For data on learning outcomes, as measured by international assessments, see Edstats (SEARCH: Series > Topics > Learning Outcomes)

Levels of disaggregation: Gender, Income, Minority, Region, Urban/Rural, Persons with Disabilities, Persons with HIV/AIDS, Migrants, Refugees and IDPs, Persons in Detention, Public/Private, Child Labourers, Level of Education
Human Rights Standards:

Article 13, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Article 28, Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 17 (2), (Revised) European Social Charter; Article 13, Protocol of San Salvador; Article 11, African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child; Article 13, African Youth Charter; Article 41 (2), Arab Charter; Article 4, UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education

Mean performance on the mathematics scale is the mean mathematics score for students in national or international assessments

Comments:

A low mean value may be indicative of a general problem in the quality of education. The data for this indicator should be disaggregated to measure relative enjoyment across and between groups, for example boys compared to girls and those living in different regions of the country. Inequalities in enjoyment may constitute discrimination. For this indicator it is important, when monitoring the right to education of persons with disabilities, to disaggregate the data by type of disability because for some types of disability there should be equality of learning outcomes, whilst for others measuring learning outcomes is not an adequate measure of the quality of education

Available data:

For data on learning outcomes, as measured by international assessments, see Edstats (SEARCH: Series > Topics > Learning Outcomes)

Levels of disaggregation: Gender, Income, Minority, Region, Urban/Rural, Persons with Disabilities, Persons with HIV/AIDS, Migrants, Refugees and IDPs, Persons in Detention, Public/Private, Child Labourers, Level of Education
Human Rights Standards:

Article 13, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Article 28, Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 17 (2), (Revised) European Social Charter; Article 13, Protocol of San Salvador; Article 11, African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child; Article 13, African Youth Charter; Article 41(2), Arab Charter; Article 4, UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education

Mean performance on the science scale is the mean science score for students in national or international assessments

Comments:

A low mean performance on the science scale may be indicative of a general problem in the quality of education. The data for this indicator should be disaggregated to measure relative enjoyment across and between groups, for example boys compared to girls and those living in different regions of the country. Inequalities in enjoyment may constitute discrimination. For this indicator it is important, when monitoring the right to education of persons with disabilities, to disaggregate the data by type of disability because for some types of disability there should be equality of learning outcomes, whilst for others measuring learning outcomes is not an adequate measure of the quality of education

Available data:

For data on learning outcomes, as measured by international assessments, see Edstats (SEARCH: Series > Topics > Learning Outcomes)

Levels of disaggregation: Gender, Income, Minority, Region, Urban/Rural, Persons with Disabilities, Persons with HIV/AIDS, Migrants, Refugees and IDPs, Persons in Detention, Public/Private, Child Labourers, Level of Education
Human Rights Standards:

Article 13, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Article 28, Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 17 (2), (Revised) European Social Charter; Article 13, Protocol of San Salvador; Article 11, African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child; Article 13, African Youth Charter; Article 41 (2), Arab Charter; Article 4, UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education

Percentage of students at the lowest level of reading proficiency is the percentage of students at the lowest level of proficiency on the reading scale in national or international assessments

Comments:

A high value indicates that a significant proportion of children are not enjoying education of good quality. For this indicator it is important to disaggregate the data and look at which marginalised groups make up the percentage of students at the lowest level of reading proficiency. Care must be taken when interpreting data for persons with disabilities. You should look at the data disaggregated by type of disability and assess whether the test is an accurate measure of the quality of education for persons with that particular disability

Available data:

For data on learning outcomes, as measured by international assessments, see Edstats (SEARCH: Series > Topics > Learning Outcomes)

Levels of disaggregation: Gender, Income, Minority, Region, Urban/Rural, Persons with Disabilities, Persons with HIV/AIDS, Migrants, Refugees and IDPs, Persons in Detention, Public/Private, Child Labourers, Level of Education
Human Rights Standards:

Article 13, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Article 28, Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 17 (2), (Revised) European Social Charter; Article 13, Protocol of San Salvador; Article 11, African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child; Article 13, African Youth Charter; Article 41(2), Arab Charter; Article 4, UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education

Percentage of students at the lowest level of mathematics proficiency is the percentage of students at the lowest level of proficiency on the mathematics scale in national or international assessments

Comments:

A high percentage of students at the lowest level of mathematics proficiency reflects that a significant proportion of children are not enjoying education of good quality. For this indicator it is important to disaggregate the data and look at which marginalised groups make up the percentage of students at the lowest level of mathematics proficiency. Care must be taken when interpreting data for persons with disabilities. You should look at the data disaggregated by type of disability and assess whether the test is an accurate measure of the quality of education for persons with that particular disability

Available data:

For data on learning outcomes, as measured by international assessments, see Edstats (SEARCH: Series > Topics > Learning Outcomes)

Levels of disaggregation: Gender, Income, Minority, Region, Urban/Rural, Persons with Disabilities, Persons with HIV/AIDS, Migrants, Refugees and IDPs, Persons in Detention, Public/Private, Child Labourers, Level of Education
Human Rights Standards:

Article 13, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Article 28, Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 17 (2), (Revised) European Social Charter; Article 13, Protocol of San Salvador; Article 11, African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child; Article 13, African Youth Charter; Article 41 (2), Arab Charter; Article 4, UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education

Percentage of students at the lowest level of science proficiency is the percentage of students at the lowest level of proficiency on the science scale in national or international assessments

Comments:

A high percentage of students at the lowest level of science proficiency reflects that a significant proportion of children are not an enjoying education of good quality. For this indicator it is important to disaggregate the data and look at which marginalised groups make up the percentage of students at the lowest level of science proficiency. Care must be taken when interpreting data for persons with disabilities. You should look at the data disaggregated by type of disability and assess whether the test is an accurate measure of the quality of education for persons with that particular disability

Available data:

For data on learning outcomes, as measured by international assessments, see Edstats (SEARCH: Series > Topics > Learning Outcomes)

Levels of disaggregation: Gender, Income, Minority, Region, Urban/Rural, Persons with Disabilities, Persons with HIV/AIDS, Migrants, Refugees and IDPs, Persons in Detention, Public/Private, Child Labourers, Level of Education
Human Rights Standards:

Article 13, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Article 28, Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 17 (2), (Revised) European Social Charter; Article 13, Protocol of San Salvador; Article 11, African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child; Article 13, African Youth Charter; Article 41 (2), Arab Charter; Article 4, UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education

Repetition rate is the proportion of pupils from a cohort enrolled in a given grade at a given school year of primary or secondary education who study in the same grade in the following school year (Source: UIS)

Comments:

A high repetition rate can be symptomatic of problems in the education system that affect the right to education, related to a variety of issues, such as the poor quality of instruction, the relevance and quality of the content of education, its cultural appropriateness, the safety of the school and the extent to which the education is adapted locally to suit specific contexts. The data for this indicator should be disaggregated to measure relative enjoyment across and between groups, for example boys compared to girls and those living in different regions of the country. Inequalities in enjoyment may constitute discrimination

Available data:

For data on repetition rates at the primary level, see Edstats

Levels of disaggregation: Level of Education, Gender, Income, Minority, Region, Urban/Rural, Persons with Disabilities, Persons with HIV/AIDS, Migrants, Refugees and IDPs, Persons in Detention, Public/Private, Child Labourers
Human Rights Standards:

Article 13, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Article, 28 Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 17 (2), (Revised) European Social Charter; Article 13, Protocol of San Salvador; Article 11, African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child; Article 13, African Youth Charter; Article 41 (2), Arab Charter; Article 4, UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education

Private enrolment refers to pupils or students enrolled at a given level of education in institutions that are not operated by a public authority but controlled and managed, whether for profit or not, by a private body, such as a non-governmental organisation, religious body, special interest group, foundation or business enterprise

Comments:

A high level of this indicator may be indicative of a poor quality of education in public schools, which typically has a particularly detrimental effect on poor children, whose families often cannot afford to pay private school fees. Furthermore, an increasing percentage over time of private enrolment at a given educational level could be indicative of worsening quality of education in public schools. The data for this indicator should be disaggregated to measure enrolment across and between groups, particularly boys compared to girls and persons with disabilities compared to the general population. This is important because a high differential in enrolment rates between and across groups may be indicative of discrimination in access to private education for certain groups. You should also collect disaggregated data by income as this can tell you about the socio-economic background of the students that the school targets

Available data:

UIS has data for enrolment rates in private institutions for all levels of education (Education>Participation>Enrolment>Enrolment by type of institution)

Levels of disaggregation: Level of Education, Gender, Income, Minority, Region, Urban/Rural, Persons with Disabilities, Migrants, Refugees and IDPs
Human Rights Standards:

Article 13 (4), International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Article 29 (2), Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 13 (5), Protocol of San Salvador; Article 11 (7), African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child; Article 14 (3), European Union Charter of Fundamental Rights; Article 2, Op Protocol 1, European Convention on Human Rights; Article 17 (1) (a), (Revised) European Social Charter; Article 13, Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities; Article 27 (3), ILO Convention 169

The percentage of schools where buildings used by students or teachers are damaged and thus pose a safety risk. Indications that a school building is in a state of disrepair include: a leaky or collapsing roof, broken windows, buckling floors and broken toilets (Source: Audrey Chapman (2007) Development of Indicators for Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: The Rights to Education, Participation in Cultural Life and Access to the Benefits of Science: p.145)

Comments:

A high percentage of schools with buildings in a state of disrepair indicates that the learning environment is unsuitable and unsafe for learners, and is therefore incongruent with the right to a quality education. It is important to disaggregate the data for this indicator, particularly across regions, urban compared to rural schools and public compared to private schools. This may reveal unequal enjoyment of quality education, which may be indicative of discrimination

Levels of disaggregation: Level of Education, Urban/Rural, Region, Public/Private
Human Rights Standards:

Article 13 (3), International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Article 10 (b), Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women; Article 29, Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC General Comment 1, paras 8 & 12)

The percentage of schools where there are not enough safe classrooms for instruction to take place (Source: Audrey Chapman (2007) Development of Indicators for Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: The Rights to Education, Participation in Cultural Life and Access to the Benefits of Science: p.145)

Comments:

A high percentage of schools that have a shortage of classrooms reflects a problem in the availability of education. It is important to disaggregate the data for this indicator, particularly across regions, urban compared to rural schools and public compared to private schools. This may reveal unequal enjoyment of quality education, which may be indicative of discrimination

Levels of disaggregation: Level of Education, Urban/Rural, Region, Public/Private
Human Rights Standards:

Article 13, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Article 28, Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 17 (2), (Revised) European Social Charter; Article 13, Protocol of San Salvador; Article 11, African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child; Article 13, African Youth Charter; Article 41 (2), Arab Charter; Article 4, UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education

Percentage of schools with potable water is the share of schools at a given level of education with a drinking water facility or water delivery point that is designed to protect water from external contamination, particularly of fecal origin. Examples of potable drinking water facilities include: pipe-borne water, protected wells, boreholes, protected spring water and rainwater

Comments:

Access to potable water is important for ensuring hygienic practices within schools and reducing the spread of certain diseases which may affect pupils’ well-being or educational performance. It is important to disaggregate the data for this indicator, particularly across regions, urban compared to rural schools and public compared to private schools. This may reveal unequal enjoyment of quality education, which may be indicative of discrimination

Available data:

For public primary and lower secondary schools in African countries, see EdStats (Africa Dataset)

Levels of disaggregation: Level of Education, Urban/Rural, Region, Public/Private
Human Rights Standards:

Articles 11, 12 & 13 (2), International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Paras 12 (c) (i) & 16 (b) of CESCR General Comment 15; Article 28 (1), Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 17 (2), (Revised) European Social Charter; Article 13 (3), Protocol of San Salvador; Articles 11 (3) & 14 (2) (c), African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child

Percentage of schools without toilets is the share of schools at a given level of education without a pit latrine, an improved pit latrine, a flush toilet, a pour-flush toilet or a composting toilet

Comments:

Access to toilets is important for ensuring hygienic practices within schools and reducing the spread of certain diseases which may affect pupils’ well-being or educational performance. It is important to disaggregate the data for this indicator, particularly across regions, urban compared to rural schools and public compared to private schools. This may reveal unequal enjoyment of quality education, which may be indicative of discrimination

Available data:

For public primary and lower secondary schools in African countries, see EdStats (Africa Dataset)

Levels of disaggregation: Level of Education, Urban/Rural, Region, Public/Private
Human Rights Standards:

Article 11, 12 & 13 (2), International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Para 6 (a), CESCR General Comment 13; 12 (c) (i) & 16 (b) of CESCR General Comment 15; Article 28 (1), Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 17 (2), (Revised) European Social Charter; Article 13 (3), Protocol of San Salvador; Article 11 (3), African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child

Percentage of schools without single-sex toilets is the share of schools without separate girls and boys toilets or single-sex educational institutions without toilets. Schools are counted as having toilets if they have a pit latrine, an improved pit latrine, a flush toilet, a pour-flush toilet or a composting toilet

Comments:

Lack of single-sex toilets in schools may deter parents from sending girls to school, particularly in traditional societies. It may also deter girls themselves from attending school or even cause them to drop-out. It is important to disaggregate the data for this indicator, particularly across regions, urban compared to rural schools and public compared to private schools. This may reveal unequal enjoyment of quality education, which may be indicative of discrimination

Available data:

For public primary and lower secondary schools in African countries, see EdStats

Levels of disaggregation: Level of Education, Urban/Rural, Region, Public/Private
Human Rights Standards:

Articles 11, 12 & 13 (2), International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; 12 (c) (i) & 16 (b), CESCR General Comment 15; Para 6 (a), CESCR General Comment 13; Article 28 (1), Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 17 (2), (Revised) European Social Charter; Article 13 (3), Protocol of San Salvador; Article 11 (3), African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child; Article 10 (b), Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women

Percentage of schools without electricity is the share of schools with no access to permanent sources of electrical power, for example grid / mains connection, wind, water, solar, permanently fuel-powered generator, etc.

Comments:

Lack of electricity may undermine the use of various learning materials, such as computers, slide projectors, etc. It is important to disaggregate the data for this indicator, particularly across regions, urban compared to rural schools and public compared to private schools. This may reveal unequal enjoyment of quality education, which may be indicative of discrimination

Available data:

For public primary and lower secondary schools in African countries, see EdStats (Africa Dataset)

Levels of disaggregation: Level of Education, Urban/Rural, Region, Public/Private
Human Rights Standards:

Article 13, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Article 28, Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 17 (2), (Revised) European Social Charter; Article 13, Protocol of San Salvador; Article 11, African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child; Article 13, African Youth Charter; Article 41 (2), Arab Charter; Article 4, UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education

Percentage of schools without a library is the share of schools without access to a library, either on school premises, a public library, the library of a nearby school or a mobile library

Comments:

Lack of access to a library may limit the access of children to books and other learning materials. It is important to disaggregate the data for this indicator, particularly across regions, urban compared to rural schools and public compared to private schools. This may reveal unequal enjoyment of quality education, which may be indicative of discrimination

Levels of disaggregation: Level of Education, Urban/Rural, Region, Public/Private
Human Rights Standards:

Article 13, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Para 6 (a), CESCR General Comment 13; Article 28, Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 17 (2), (Revised) European Social Charter; Article 13, Protocol of San Salvador; Article 11, African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child; Article 13, African Youth Charter; Article 41 (2), Arab Charter; Article 4, UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education

Percentage of schools without computer facilities is the share of schools without computer facilities

Comments:

Lack of computer facilities may diminish learners' opportunities to receive an education of good quality, as well as learn skills that enhance future employability. It is important to disaggregate the data for this indicator, particularly across regions, urban compared to rural schools and public compared to private schools. This may reveal unequal enjoyment of quality education, which may be indicative of discrimination

Levels of disaggregation: Level of Education, Urban/Rural, Region, Public/Private
Human Rights Standards:

Article 13 (2), International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Para 6 (a), CESCR General Comment 13; Articles 28 (1) & (3), Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 17 (2), (Revised) European Social Charter; Article 13, Protocol of San Salvador; Article 11, African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child; Article 13 (4) (j), African Youth Charter; Article 41 (2), Arab Charter; Article 4, UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education

Percentage of schools without fire exits is the share of schools without a fire exit

Comments:

A high percentage of schools without fire exits reflects a problem in schools' safety. It is important to disaggregate the data for this indicator, particularly across regions, urban compared to rural schools and public compared to private schools. This may reveal unequal enjoyment of quality education, which may be indicative of discrimination

Levels of disaggregation: Level of Education, Urban/Rural, Region, Public/Private
Human Rights Standards:

Article 13 (2) (e), International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

Percentage of schools without first-aid kits is the share of schools without first-aid kits

Comments:

A high percentage of schools without first-aid kits reflects an inability to address the health concerns of all those in school, including students, teachers and administrative staff. It is important to disaggregate the data for this indicator, particularly across regions, urban compared to rural schools and public compared to private schools. This may reveal unequal enjoyment of quality education, which may be indicative of discrimination

Levels of disaggregation: Level of Education, Urban/Rural, Region, Public/Private
Human Rights Standards:

Articles 13 (2) & 12, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Articles 19 (1) & 28 (1) (2), Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 17 (2), (Revised) European Social Charter; Article 13, Protocol of San Salvador; Article 11, African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child; Article 13, African Youth Charter; Article 41 (2), Arab Charter; Article 4, UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education

Pupil / teacher ratio is the number of pupils enrolled at a given level of education divided by the number of teachers at that level (regardless of teaching assignment)

Comments:

A high pupil / teacher ratio reflects a shortage of available teachers and may affect the quality of education received. It is important to disaggregate the data for this indicator, particularly across regions, urban compared to rural schools and public compared to private schools. This may reveal unequal enjoyment of quality education, which may be indicative of discrimination

Available data:

UIS (Education>Human Resources>Pupil-Teacher Ratio)

Levels of disaggregation: Level of Education, Urban/Rural, Region, Public/Private
Human Rights Standards:

Article 13, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Article 28, Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 17 (2), (Revised) European Social Charter; Article 13, Protocol of San Salvador; Article 11, African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child; Article 13, African Youth Charter; Article 41 (2), Arab Charter; Article 4, UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education

Transparent procedures include, inter alia, publicly available information about the requirements needed to apply for a teaching position for each level of education and the process for selecting the candidates

Comments:

Transparent and fair hiring procedures are essential to ensure that the best possible candidates are selected (which affects the quality of education), to prevent discriminatory practices in the hiring of teachers and to prevent corruption in the education system

Levels of disaggregation: Level of Education, Public/Private, Region

This indicator measures the number of years of education required for school teachers to meet certification requirements to teach at a given level of education (Source: Audrey Chapman (2007) Development of Indicators for Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: The Rights to Education, Participation in Cultural Life and Access to the Benefits of Science: p.148)

Comments:

A low number of years of education required for teachers to meet certification requirements (especially compared with other countries) may be indicative of inadequate training for teachers, therefore potentially affecting the quality of education delivered

Levels of disaggregation: Level of Education, Public/Private, Region
Human Rights Standards:

Article 13, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Article 28, Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 17 (2), (Revised) European Social Charter; Article 13, Protocol of San Salvador; Article 11, African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child; Article 13, African Youth Charter; Article 41 (2), Arab Charter; Article 4, UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education

Number of required years of education for qualified teachers is the number of years of higher education required in a country to be a teacher at a given level of education

Comments:

A relatively low number of years (when compared with other countries) may be indicative of inadequate efforts by the State to ensure a good quality of education

Levels of disaggregation: Level of Education, Public/Private, Region
Human Rights Standards:

Article 13, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Article 28, Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 17 (2), (Revised) European Social Charter; Article 13, Protocol of San Salvador; Article 11, African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child; Article 13, African Youth Charter; Article 41 (2), Arab Charter; Article 4, UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education

Total number of teachers who have received the minimum organised teacher-training (pre-service or in-service) required for teaching at the relevant level of education in a given country, expressed as a percentage of the total number of teachers at the same level of education (Source: UIS)

Comments:

A low value for this indicator may be indicative that children are being taught by teachers who are not adequately trained, who may not have an adequate knowledge of the subject matter they teach, who do not have the necessary pedagogical skills to teach and may not use the available instructional materials in an effective manner. This would suggest a problem in the acceptability of the education system and the quality of education

Available data:

UIS (Education>Human resources>Percentage of Teachers>Percentage of Trained Teachers by Level of Education)

Levels of disaggregation: Level of Education, Urban/Rural, Public/Private, Region
Human Rights Standards:

Article 13, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Article 28, Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 17 (2), (Revised) European Social Charter; Article 13, Protocol of San Salvador; Article 11, African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child; Article 13, African Youth Charter; Article 41 (2), Arab Charter; Article 4, UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education

The percentage of students for whom the actual (rather than straight line) distance they are required to travel in order to get to school from their house exceeds 5km

Comments:

A high percentage of the population for whom school is farther than 5km may be indicative of problems in the availability and physical accessibility of schools

Levels of disaggregation: Level of Education, Region, Urban/Rural, Public/Private
Human Rights Standards:

Article 13 (2), International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Article 28 (1), Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 17 (2), (Revised) European Social Charter; Article 13 (3), Protocol of San Salvador; Article 11 (3), African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child

Percentage of household expenditure on education is the total average cost per month per family for a student in a school as a percentage of total household expenditure. Examples of educational expenses include: enrolment fees, tuition fees, uniforms, school supplies and educational materials, school meals and school transport and other payments necessary to effectively access education, such as payment for water, security etc.

Comments:

A high percentage of household expenditure on education may reflect a problem in the economic accessibility of public schools. It may also constitute a violation of the right to free education

Levels of disaggregation: Level of Education, Gender, Income, Region, Urban/Rural, Public/Private, Persons with Disabilities
Human Rights Standards:

Articles 23 (3) & 24( 2), Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities; Article 13 (2), International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Article 28 (1), Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 17 (2), (Revised) European Social Charter; Article 13 (3), Protocol of San Salvador; Article 11 (3), African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child; Article 13 (4) (a) (b), African Youth Charter; Article 41 (2), Arab Charter; Article 31 (2), Asean Human Rights Declaration; Article 14 (2), European Union Charter of Fundamental Rights

Pupil / textbook ratio is the average number of pupils for every textbook in schools

Comments:

Textbooks are one of the major teaching and learning resources used in schools. Given that a large number low income families cannot afford to buy their own textbooks, this is an important indicator related to equal access to quality education

Available data:

For the number of pupils per textbook (mathematics and reading only) in public primary schools in African countries, see EdStats (Africa Dataset)

Levels of disaggregation: Level of Education, Region, Urban/Rural
Human Rights Standards:

Article 13 (2) (a), International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Article 28 (1) (a), Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 17 (2), (Revised) European Social Charter; Article 13 (3) (a), Protocol of San Salvador; Article 11 (3) (a), African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child

The requirement to present a birth certificate in order to enrol in school may be prescribed by local, regional or national law

Comments:

Such a requirement impairs access to education of children without birth certificates and may amount to discrimination

Human Rights Standards:

Article 30, Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families; Article 22, Convention relating to the Status of Refugees; Articles 2 (2) (3) & 13 (2), International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Para 34, CESCR General Comment 13; Article 2, Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 3 (e), UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education

Seasonal migrants are persons employed in a State other than their own for part of the year because the work they perform depends on seasonal conditions

Comments:

Not allowing children of seasonal migrants to enrol in school prevents full access to education for such children

Levels of disaggregation: Level of Education
Human Rights Standards:

Article 30, Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families; Article 22, Convention relating to the Status of Refugees; Article 28 (1), Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 3 (e), UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education; Articles 2 (2) (3) & 13 (2), International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Para 34, CESCR General Comment 13

This indicator measures the proportion of teachers who are not in school although they were expected to be teaching when visited by a survey team, out of all teachers who were expected to be teaching

Comments:

The standard tool to measure this indicator is unannounced visits to schools to determine the percentage of teachers not on site. For this indicator, administratively approved leave for professional development, field trips or other off-school activities with students is not counted as a teacher's absence. A high teacher absenteeism rate may reflect a problem in the availability of education

Levels of disaggregation: Level of Education, Region, Urban/Rural, Public/Private
Human Rights Standards:

Article 13, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Article 28, Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 17 (2), (Revised) European Social Charter; Article 13, Protocol of San Salvador; Article 11, African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child; Article 13, African Youth Charter; Article 41 (2), Arab Charter; Article 4, UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education

Comments:

Check if measures or programmes adopted by the State to reduce teacher absenteeism take into account the specific factors that contribute to this phenomenon in the country, which may include, inter alia, school material conditions, administrative breakdowns (eg non-payment of salaries), health (including care for family members in the absence of any other social care structure) and inadequate transportation systems. In a country with high levels of teacher absenteeism, lack of specific measures to combat this problem may constitute a violation of the State's obligation to make education accessible

Human Rights Standards:

Article 13, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Article 28, Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 17 (2), (Revised) European Social Charter; Article 13, Protocol of San Salvador; Article 11, African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child; Article 13, African Youth Charter; Article 41 (2), Arab Charter; Article 4, UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education

The primary education priority ratio is the percentage of total education expenditure allocated to primary education

Comments:

This indicator reflects priorities within a given educational system. The interpretation of low levels of this ratio will depend on the circumstances. Countries that have already achieved high standards of pre-primary and primary education may be justified in prioritising higher education levels. However, in countries where a significant proportion of the population is illiterate or many children are deprived of the most basic forms of education, a low primary education priority ratio could be interpreted as a violation of a State’s immediate obligation to guarantee free and compulsory basic education

Human Rights Standards:

Articles 13 (2) (a) & 14, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Article 28 (1) (a) (e), Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 24 (2), Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities; Article 7 (2) (c), ILO Convention 182; Article 17 (2), (Revised) European Social Charter; Article 13 (3) (a) (d), Protocol of San Salvador; Article 11 (3) (a) (d), African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, Article 13 (4) (a) (c), African Youth Charter; Article 41 (2), Arab Charter; Article 4 (a), UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education