The Public Report on Basic Education (PROBE) team in India analysed the evidence it found on school infrastructure in 234 villages against the goals set by Operation Blackboard, a nation-wide programme to improve primary schools:

  • At least two reasonably large all- weather rooms along with separate toilet facilities for boys and girls.
  • At least two teachers, as far as possible one of them a woman.
  • Essential teaching and learning material including blackboards, maps, charts, a small library, toys, games and some equipment for work experience.

When comparing the evidence it found with this benchmark, the PROBE team found that only a few of the schools they had visited met this benchmark, and in most cases the shortfall was serious.

Source: PROBE & Centre for Development Economics (1999) Public Report on Basic Education in India: Chapter 4, p.1-3.


The South African Ministry of Education adopted an Action Plan to improve the basic education sector. The plan sets 27 national goals (p.8-9) and explains how the goals will be achieved, how improvements will be monitored, and clearly states the exact national and provincial targets for each goal. The first 13 goals focus on enrolment and learning, ie outcomes. The following goals concern how the outcomes will be achieved, ie they are process goals.

Source: Department of Basic Education, South Africa (2011) Action plan to 2014: towards the realisation of schooling 2025.