Imagine for instance that during Step 2 of the monitoring process you found that a large proportion of girls are dropping out of school, whilst most boys complete primary education. You may come to the conclusion that traditional social norms may be influencing parents’ decisions to send girls to school. At this stage you may want to examine whether the government has made efforts to counteract these entrenched social norms that have proven to be useful in other circumstances. This could include legislative reforms, such as marriage rights and inheritance, or public awareness campaigns about the benefits of girls’ education.

However, you may have found that the primary reason that many parents are not sending their girls to school is not due to cultural or social norms, but rather due to economic reasons. For example it could be that in your country, educated boys can expect to receive a higher future income than equally educated girls, and therefore poor households without the means to send all their children to school choose to send only the boys to school. In such a case, during this step, you should assess whether governments have made specific efforts to change labour market circumstances, so that it does not discriminate against women, and so that the opportunities and advantages faced by all children at given levels of education and achievement are broadly equal.