Violations of the right to education – illustrative examples:

  • The introduction or failure to repeal legislation which discriminates against individuals or groups, on any of the prohibited grounds, in the field of education.
  • The failure to take measures which address de facto educational discrimination.
  • The use of curricula inconsistent with the educational objectives set out in Article 13 (1) of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR).
  • The failure to maintain a transparent and effective system to monitor that education is in conformity with Article 13 (1) ICESCR.
  • The failure to introduce, as a matter of priority, primary education which is compulsory and available free to all.
  • The failure to take "deliberate, concrete and targeted” measures towards the progressive realisation of secondary, higher, and fundamental education.
  • The prohibition of private educational institutions.
  • The failure to ensure private educational institutions conform to the “minimum educational standards” required by Article 13 (3) and (4).
  • The denial of academic freedom of staff and students.
  • The closure of educational institutions in times of political tension.

Adapted from the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1999) General Comment 13: The right to education (Article 13).