Total primary (or secondary) school age children who are not enrolled (because they never enrolled or because they dropped-out) in primary or secondary education expressed as a percentage of the official school-age population corresponding to the primary (or secondary) level in a given school-year. Children enrolled in pre-primary education are excluded and considered out-of-school (Source: UIS)
Special measures to include child labourers in education include, inter alia, adapting schools' schedules during harvest seasons in rural areas and making non-formal forms of schooling available for child labourers
Specific measures to combat child labour include, for example, providing cash transfers to poor families
An example of such a measure is a programme that adapts education to students' specific circumstances to prevent further drop-outs
Mechanisms by which stakeholders can contribute to the formulation and / or implementation of strategies to identify out-of-school children include: perception surveys, focus groups and public campaigns.
Out-of-school children are all those excluded from education at a given level of education
Marginalised groups are all those excluded from governmental policy and access to education including: women and girls, indigenous peoples and minorities, persons with disabilities, persons with HIV / AIDS, child labourers, persons in detention, migrants, refugees and IDPs, and persons living in poverty (Source: Audrey Chapman (2007) Development of Indicators for Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: The Rights to Education, Participation in Cultural Life and Access to the Benefits of Science: p.145)