As for Steps 2.3 and 3.3 benchmarks can help you assess the adequacy of the ratio levels. 

Types of benchmarks

Specifically, ratio levels can be compared with the following types of benchmarks:

State formal commitments

Compare ratio levels with guarantees and commitments made in documents such asconstitutions, laws, policies and national plans. For instance, if a country’s national laws state that acertain percentage of the national budget should be allocated to education or stipulate a specific percentage for some level of education (eg primary education) you can compare the actual budget allocation with that set in law and make the case that the budget allocation is inadequate according the country’s own laws.

International benchmarks

TheEducation 2030 Incheon Declaration and Framework for Action sets spending targets for educaton at at least 4% to 6% of gross domestic product and / or at least 15% to 20% of total public expenditure. 

Cross-country comparisons

Comparing data across countries can reveal whether levels of education expenditure and allocation ratios are consistent withsimilar countries in the same region.

Cross-sector comparisons

Compare education spending relative to‘non-priority’ sectors within the budget.

Time series analysis

Measuring levels of the same ratios over a period of time can give an indication of whether resources are being employed to progressively realise the right to education. For instance, analysing changes in theeducation allocation ratio can help you track shifts in the relative priority given by the government to the education sector.