States have the obligation to progressively provide free higher education. Public investments in private higher education institutions may lead to States diverting budget from public higher education institutions to private ones. This is even more concerning regarding for-profit market driven institutions. Also, concentration of public investment in certain subject areas/program orientation and/or level of education may indicate a commercialisation trend, hindering equality.

Human Rights Standards: 

Article 26, Universal Declaration of Human Rights; Article 2.2 and article 13, 2, (c), International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Article 2, Convention on the Rights of the Child; Articles 3 and 4, UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education; Part IV., overarching principle 5 and guiding principles underneath of the The Abidjan Principles.

Levels and Types of Education: 
Policy Processes and Governance: 
Types of Indicator: 
Levels of disaggregation: 
Private institution (for-profit/nonprofit), by type of investment (private/public partnerships, direct investments, incentives/subsidies, scholarships/grants), by subject area/program orientation, by level of education (Bachelor, Master/PhD).