This indicator measures the number of out-of-school students due to military use of schools and/or universities. The total number is calculated by adding up the number of out-of-school children for each reported incident of military use of schools and/or universities.


Students may be forced out of school because of school closure due to direct attacks on infrastructure, or due to the use of schools by armed forces to support military efforts. This indicator measures only the number of out-of-school students due to military use of schools. If the school is partially closed, it is necessary to verify if students from one class have been assigned/are able to attend school in another class or a similar circumstance. Drop-out rates may also rise because military use can create a general climate of insecurity in the midst of conflict, leading students and parents fearing for their life and thus avoiding schooling. Note that GCPEA would only consider drop-out rates directly related to attacks on education (e.g. school is bombed and enrolled students can’t attend classes until the school is repaired, or they attend virtual lessons or classes at another school), not drop-out rates due to generalised insecurity or climates of fear. 

Available data: 

The United Nations reports on military use of schools as one of six grave violations against children in armed conflict. Find examples in the virtual library of the Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary General for Children and Armed Conflict. Check also the annual reports of the Global Coalition to Protect Education from Attack.

Human Rights Standards: 

Article 7, (g) (i) & article 8 (2) (b) (ix), Rome Statute;; Articles 48, 51 & 52, Protocol 1 of the Geneva Convention, Article 1 (A), Article 2 (1), Article 13 (1,4), International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Article 29 (2), 38, Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 2, Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict; Article 22, African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child; Article 14 (3), European Union Charter of Fundamental Rights; Article 17 European Social Charter (Revised). See also the Safe School Declaration and the Guidelines for Protecting Schools and Universities from Military Use during Armed Conflict. UN Security Council resolutions: 1261 (1999), 1314 (2000), 1379 (2001), 1460 (2003), 1539 (2004), 1612 (2005), 1820 (2008), 1882 (2009), 1998 (2011), 2068 (2012), 2143 (2014), 2225 (2015), 2427 (2018).

Types of Indicator: 
Levels of disaggregation: 
Disaggregate by age group, gender and level of education.

For each incident, you may wish to ask the school principal or director, or university dean/other faculty members for information, as they might have solid information on how many students are/were put out of school because of the incident. You can also consider asking principals/administrators how many students dropped out because of the incident (i.e., parents cited the incident specifically when pulling their students from classes), rather than for other reasons occurring around the same time (e.g., pregnancy, economic conditions, general insecurity, families moving or fleeing etc.). You might also want to inquire about community leaders and parents. 

Interpretation and analysis: 

For each incident of school closure you can calculate the number of children out of school by checking the number of enrolled students. In the event of partial closure, you may inquire how many classes were closed and how many students are/were impacted by it (it is important to verify if students were assigned to another class).