Complaint mechanisms may be set up within the Education Ministry and / or within non-judicial oversight institutions such as a human rights commission, the supreme audit institution, or an anti-corruption agency
Article 13, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Article 28, Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 17 (2), (Revised) European Social Charter; Article 13, Protocol of San Salvador; Article 11, African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child; Article 13, African Youth Charter; Article 41 (2), Arab Charter; Article 4, UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education.
Provisions on effective remedies: Article 2 (3), International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; Article 2, Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women; Article 6, International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination; Article 7, African Charter; Article 25, American Convention on Human Rights; Article 13, European Convention on Human Rights
To assess whether the complaint mechanisms are effective, check, inter alia, the extent to which parents and children are aware of specific complaint procedures and the extent to which schools publicise the existence of such procedures (eg placing a complaint box in a each school, setting up a complaint mechanism on the website of the Ministry of Education, etc.); whether complaints can be filed in a language other than the majority language; whether there are effective guarantees against reprisal to protect any person making a complaint and the extent to which official inquiries or other follow-up actions are taken after someone files a complaint, and whether those steps are carried out in a timely manner