(Source: Audrey Chapman (2007) Development of Indicators for Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: The Rights to Education, Participation in Cultural Life and Access to the Benefits of Science: p.141)


According to human rights standards, States have to respect the liberty of parents to ensure the religious and moral education of their children in conformity with their own convictions. This includes, inter alia, allowing children to be exempted from attending schools on important holy days for their respective religions, taking into account dietary requirements relating to religion and allowing children to be exempted from religious or moral classes not in accordance with their religious or moral convictions

Human Rights Standards: 

Article 18 (4), International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; Article 13 (3), International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Article 14 (2), Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 12 (4), Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families; Article 14 (3), European Union Charter of Fundamental Rights; Article 5 (b), UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education; Article 2, Optional Protocol 1, European Convention on Human Rights; Article 17 (1) (a), (Revised) European Social Charter; Article 13 (4), Protocol of San Salvador; Article 12 (4), Pact of San Jose; Article 50, Geneva Convention 4; Article 78 (2), AP1 Geneva Convention; Article 4 (3) (a), AP2 Geneva Convention

Types of Indicator: