States have the obligation to provide ‘reasonable accommodation’ to students with disabilities. Reasonable accommodation is defined as ‘appropriate modification and adjustments which are necessary, in a particular case, to ensure persons with disabilities can enjoy, on an equal basis with others, all human rights and fundamental freedoms’.
Accommodations to students with disabilities ensure a positive learning environment and guarantee the right to inclusive education.
‘Accommodations’ refers to physical accommodation, learning material, course format, etc. The ‘reasonableness’ of accommodation is context-specific: it involves an analysis of the relevance and effectiveness of the specific accommodation, including whether it counters discrimination
Inclusive education with regard to people with disabilities means ensuring their effective access to education and the fulfilment of their individual potential on equal terms with other students within a participatory learning environment. It requires addressing the specific barriers people with disabilities face in the enjoyment of their right to education through support and accommodations (building, teaching material, course format) as well as by building a culture of non-discrimination and inclusion.
Article 26, Universal Declaration of Human Rights; Article 2.2 and 13 International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Article 2, Convention on the rights of the Child; Article 24 of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities; Paragraph 9, General comment 4, Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRDP)