1.3 Categories of education

Typically monitoring projects on the right to education focus on one or more of the following categories: level of education, geographic focus, a specific marginalised group, a specific type of education, or a specific context. The table below presents some of the categories you may wish to focus on: 

Level or type of education





Technical and vocational


Adult / Fundamental education

Geographic focus


Local community

District (school, local authority or county)

Provincial (sub-national or federal)




Marginalised group

Girls or women

Ethnic, religious or linguistic minorities

Indigenous peoples

Refugees, asylum-seekers, migrants, immigrants, or internally displaced persons

Persons with disabilities (including physical, mental, intellectual and sensory impairments)

People living in extreme poverty (socio-economic status)

Birth status

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender or intersex persons (LGBTI)

Street children

Homeless persons

Persons in detention

Child labourers

Child soldiers

Persons with HIV / AIDS

Other marginalised or vulnerable groups (depending on your local context)


Conflict (including periods of social unrest or post-conflict recovery)

Natural disasters

Health crises

Economic crises

You can further narrow down your thematic focus by concentrating on a category within a category. For instance, you may focus on unequal access to a specific level of education of a specific marginalised group, as Amnesty International has done in thisreport.

Another strategy is to focus onmultiple forms of discrimination, for instance girls from an ethnic minority, living in poverty.

Lastly, as you undertake your monitoring project, you may find that you narrow down your focus because the outcome data you gather (Step 2.2)exposes where the most serious deprivations and inequalities occur.