The Kampala Convention is the first international treaty, adopted at regional level (Africa), that protect internally displaced persons. It binds governments to provide legal protection for the rights and well-being of those forced to flee inside their home countries due to conflict, violence, natural disasters, and other human rights abuses. Article 9.2 (b) refers to education.

[FRANÇAIS]

 

The Action plan of the Djibouti Declaration for Refugee Education of the IGAD outlines the actions to be carried out in the delivery of quality education and learning outcomes for refugees, returnees and host communities in the region.

 
La Déclaration de Djibouti de la Conférence ministérielle régionale sur l'éducation des réfugiés est un instrument juridique non contraignant produit par l'IGAD (Autorité intergouvernementale pour le développement) en 2017, elle compte huit États membres : Djibouti, l'Ethiopie, le Kenya, la Somalie, le Soudan, le Sud-Soudan, l'Ouganda et l'Erythrée. 
 
La déclaration énonce les engagements des États membres à mettre en œuvre et à développer des normes éducatives de qualité et l'inclusion dans leur cadre juridique national et leur système éducatif. Elle est accompagnée d'un 'Action Plan(en anglais), qui décrit les actions à mener pour offrir une éducation de qualité et des résultats d'apprentissage aux réfugiés, aux rapatriés et aux communautés d'accueil dans la région.
 

The Djibouti Declaration of the Regional Ministerial Conference on Refugee Education is a non binding legal instrument produced by the IGAD (Intergovernmental Authority on Development) in 2017, it has eight member states: Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan, South Sudan, Uganda and Eritrea. 

The declaration states the commitments of member states to implement and develop quality educational standards and inclusion in their national legal framework and educational system, it is accompanied by an Action Plan, which outlines the actions to be carried out in the delivery of quality education and learning outcomes for refugees, returnees and host communities in the region.

[FRANÇAIS]

 

This study investigates the emergence and supply-demand dynamics of a market for low-fee private schools (LFPS) at the level of early childhood care and education (ECCE) in a slum of Lusaka, Zambia. Based on data collection over 1.5 years, the study reveals that, despite a government policy to support ECE, over 90 per cent of ECCE centres are private; that school operators tend to be former teachers, businessmen/women, and religious leaders; and that LFPSs charge, on average, 2.5 times as much as government ECCE centres for tuition, not including additional indirect costs. The paper discusses how teachers in LFPSs are caught in the middle, making less than the average income earned by others in the surrounding slum, and are unable to afford LFPS fees themselves. Importantly, the paper highlights that lower income quintiles spend a greater percentage of their income on ECCE, and that a majority of families in the study must make trade-offs between ECCE, food, housing, and other basic expenditures in order to afford private ECCE, which is a necessity given the inadequate supply of government ECCE centres. In addition to addressing school strategies for keeping costs down, this study reports on parental decision-making when it comes to school selection. Finally, beyond a straight market analysis of LFPSs at the ECCE level in Zambia, this article also comments on how this market fits into the dialectical nature of local and global contexts. That is, it draws attention to the workings of the Zambian state and its precarious position in the global capitalist economy.

 

In 1995, the parents of an Indian pupil brought a case against University of Natal because her application to medical school was rejected despite the satisfactory results she obtained in her qualifying examinations. They claimed that the admission process was discriminatory because it did not consider all the applications equally, but set higher admission standards for Indian students and lower ones for African students. The parents argued that this is as a violation of ‘equal access to educational institution’ provision of the constitution as well as sections 8(1) and 8 (2) in regard to ‘setting a discriminatory practice’. The Court agreed that while Indian community had been decidedly disadvantaged by the apartheid system, African pupils were even more so. Accordingly, the Court held that a selection system which compensated for this discrepancy does not violate the provisions of sections 8(1) and 8(2) of the Constitution.

À la lumière des normes relatives aux droits de l'Homme concernant le droit à l'éducation et de l'objectif de développement durable (ODD) 4, les organisations de la société civile signataires cidessous expriment de sérieuses inquiétudes quant aux implications potentielles de l’étude récemment publiée "Can Education be Standardized ? Evidence from Kenya" (L'Éducation peutelle être standardisée ? Données du Kenya). Nous exhortons les gouvernements et les autres parties prenantes à reconnaître les limites de cette étude, que certains chercheront à utiliser pour justifier l'expansion de l'offre éducative privée à but lucratif et des méthodes d'enseignement scénarisées1 . Il existe des approches bien établies pour relever les défis auxquels sont confrontés certains systèmes éducatifs et nous exhortons toutes les parties prenantes à se concentrer sur les stratégies et les politiques éducatives qui ont fait leurs preuves en matière d'éducation inclusive, équitable et de bonne qualité, et qui contribuent à renforcer l'éducation publique pour toutes et tous.

 

ENGLISH

In the light of human rights standards on the right to education and the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 4, the signatory civil society organisations below raise serious concerns about the potential implications of the recently released working paper “Can Education be Standardized? Evidence from Kenya". We urge governments and other actors to recognise the limitations of this study, which some will seek to use to justify the expansion of for-profit private provision of education and scripted teaching methods. There are well established approaches to address the challenges faced by some education systems and we urge all actors to focus on education strategies and policies that have been proven to deliver inclusive, equitable and good quality education, and that contribute to strengthening public education for all.

 

FRANÇAIS

Pages