The report examines questions related to enforcement of the right to education and judicial and quasi-judicial mechanisms. It also highlights the available jurisprudence at the national, regional and international levels, with a focus on some key dimensions of the right to education. In conclusion, the Special Rapporteur offers recommendations for making the justiciability of the right to education and its enforcement more effective.

This report examines national and international norms and standards, as well as policies regarding quality in education. The Special Rapporteur underscores the need to promote the adoption of norms at the national level establishing the right to quality education, consistent with the international legal human rights framework and relevant initiatives at the national, regional and international levels. In conclusion, the Special Rapporteur provides recommendations aimed at promoting quality education.



Based on extensive evidence gathered from many different sources - detainees and civil society as well as governments and the international community - this report attempts to portray the reality for prisoners and charts the legal obligations that are neglected or often absent. Assessing the situation, the report proposes a set of strong recommendations.


The report focuses on the promotion of equality of opportunity in education. Ensuring equality of opportunity in education is an overarching principle that is reflected in core human rights treaties. States have the duty to adopt measures to eradicate discrimination and ensure equal access for all to education. The promotion of equality of opportunity in education both in law and in fact is an ongoing challenge for all States, and one that requires not only the elimination of discriminatory practices, but also the adoption of temporary special measures to bring about equality in fact with regard to education. The report first details core human rights standards provisions which establish the obligation to promote equal opportunities in education. It subsequently describes different sources of inequalities and different types of initiatives to address them. It concludes by formulating recommendations based on human rights standards.

The  report centres on the assessment of the educational attainments of students and the implementation of the right to education. The Special Rapporteur on the right to education underlines the importance of developing and applying national assessment systems which are in compliance with international human right norms, so that education meets the essential objectives assigned to it in human rights conventions. He considers that such a human rights-based, holistic approach is essential for fostering the humanistic mission of education rather than its mere instrumental role, using a narrow scope of assessments linked to mathematical literacy and language skills only. The report also places emphasis on skills development as an integral part of basic education and on the need for innovative assessment modalities of technical and vocational education and training, particularly in developing countries, in response to the rising aspirations of youth, while not losing sight of the human rights perspective.

The report concludes with recommendations to strengthen human rights-based, holistic approaches to national assessments of the educational attainments of students.

This report highlights international obligations as well as political commitments to promote technical and vocational education and training. The report analyses norms and standards developed through international instruments, and underlines the importance of national-level normative action to maximize the contribution of technical and vocational education and training to
empowerment and social and economic development.

The Special Rapporteur stresses specific characteristics of technical and vocational education and training as a right, and analyses evolving national legal and policy frameworks. He underlines the need to ensure quality in such education and training and the responsibilities of various stakeholders involved in it  implementation. The report also addresses the importance of technical and vocational education and training in the post-2015 “Education for All” and development agendas and concludes with a set of recommendations.


The present report is submitted pursuant to Human Rights Council resolutions 8/4 and 17/3. It is devoted to the issue of domestic financing of basic education. It details human rights obligations for financing education and provides practical examples of national legal frameworks that ensure domestic financing. The report also contains an update on the situation of education in emergencies, pursuant to General Assembly resolution 64/290. The Special Rapporteur underlines that the attention and funding dedicated to education in emergencies continue to be insufficient and inadequate, and calls for more investment in preventive efforts and for a better protection of education during armed conflict. 

In this report, the Special Rapporteur focuses on the human right to comprehensive sexual education. The Special Rapporteur introduces the topic of the right to sexual education,
placing it in the context of patriarchy and control of sexuality. He explains theinterdependence of sexuality, health and education and the relationship of this right to other rights from a gender and diversity perspective. The Special Rapporteur also introduces the right to sexual education in the context of international human rights law and analyses international and regional standards. He then addresses the situation of the right to sexual education, taking State responsibility into account and analysing regional and national trends, differing perspectives and the key role of the family and the community. The Special Rapporteur concludes his report by reiterating the necessity and the relevance of the right to comprehensive sexual education and presenting specific recommendations for States and the international community.


This report considers the right of persons with disabilities to inclusive education. It recommends a series of legislative, policy and financial measures that need to be adopted in order to give effect to this right. It also identifies some of the obstacles that prevent the fulfilment of the right to inclusive education, as indicated in the responses submitted by various States and non-governmental organisations to a questionnaire, sent out by the Special Rapporteur, the purpose of which was to assess the degree to which international standards are being implemented in this area. Among other obstacles, it cites the discrepancy that exists between the normative framework and the resources available for realising the right to inclusive education, as well as the lack of genuine political will to achieve this goal.


The present report focuses on girls’ right to education. In view of the first assessment of the Millennium Development Goals, the Special Rapporteur wished to focus on Goals 2 and 3, on universal primary education and gender equality. The Special Rapporteur addresses the sociocultural context of gender discrimination by defining the concept of patriarchalism, which underpins discriminatory behaviours. He denounces the negative impact on education, and especially on girls’ education, of the persistent consideration of education as being a service rather than a human right and insists on the importance of ensuring not only girls’ access to school but also their completion of the education cycle. The report identifies obstacles to education for girls, such as early marriages and pregnancies, child labour (especially domestic work) and armed conflicts.

The Special Rapporteur draws attention to aggravating factors and highlights the key role of human rights education and its concrete implementation at the classroom level to combat gender discrimination and stereotypes. The report also summarises replies received to the questionnaire sent to different stakeholders to solicit information on the realization of the right to education for girls, extracting major trends from the replies and validating his findings. The report provides a set of recommendations based on the four elements identified as components of the right to education, namely, availability, accessibility, acceptability and adaptability.