In this decision, the Supreme Court of India interpreted the right to education to include the right to the provision of a safe environment in schools, and imposed an obligation on schools to comply with certain fire safety precautions which were detailed in the judgment.

In this case, a resident of Uttar Pradesh state challenged a notification issued by the Karnataka government that permitted private medical colleges to charge higher fees to students who were not allocated 'government seats'. The Supreme Court of India held that the charging of a ‘capitation fee’ by the private educational institutions violated the right to education, as implied from the right to life and human dignity, and the right to equal protection of the law. In the absence of an express constitutional right, the Court interpreted a right to education as a necessary condition for fulfilment of the right to life under Article 21 of the Indian Constitution. In addition, the Court held that private institutions, acting as agents of the State, have a duty to ensure equal access to, and non-discrimination the delivery of, higher education.

In response to a petition filed by an Indian charity, the Supreme Court of India directed the governments of all States and Union Territories to ensure that all schools, whether private or state-run, provide proper toilet facilities, drinking water, sufficient classrooms and capable teaching staff. The court held that, under the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act (2009) and the Indian Constitution, central, state and local governments have an obligation to ensure that all schools, both public and private, have adequate infrastructure. Adequate infrastructure includes safe drinking water, toilet facilities for boys and girls, sufficient class rooms and the appointment of teaching and non-teaching staff.

In this decision, the Supreme Court of India upheld the constitutionality of section 12 of the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act (RTE Act), which requires all schools, both state-funded and private, to accept 25% intake of children from disadvantaged groups. However, the Court held that the RTE Act could not require private, minority schools to satisfy a 25% quota, as this would constitute a violation of the right of minority groups to establish private schools under the Indian Constitution. This case affirms that the authority of the State to fulfil its obligations under the right to education can be extended to private, non-State actors. Because the State has the authority to determine the manner in which it discharge this obligation, it can elect to impose statutory obligations on private schools so long as the requirements are in the public interest.

L'enseignement public est souvent critique comme étant inefficace et inefficient. Cependant, lorsque des lacunes dans l'enseignement public sont identifiées, elles peuvent souvent être attribuées non pas à un manque de compétence, mais a un manque de volonté politique. En examinant sept exemples d'enseignement public dans les pays en développement, cette recherche montre que, contrairement aux idées reçues, l'enseignement public peut être l'approche la plus efficace, efficiente et transformatrice de l'éducation et, surtout, qu'il est possible de développer un enseignement public de qualité partout, y compris dans les pays du Sud.

 

ESPAÑOL   ENGLISH

La educación pública a menudo es criticada por ser ineficaz e ineficiente. Sin embargo, cuando se identifican las deficiencias en la educación pública, muy frecuentemente ellas no pueden ser atribuidas a la falta de capacidad, sino a la falta de voluntad política. Al revisar siete ejemplos de educación pública en países en desarrollo, esta investigación muestra que, en contraste directo con ideas ampliamente difundidas, la educación publica puede ser un abordaje mas eficaz, eficiente y transformador de la educación y - lo mas importante -, que es posible desarrollar una educación pública de calidad en todas partes del mundo.

ENGLISH   FRANÇAIS

Public education is often critiqued as ineffective and inefficient. However, where shortcomings in public education are identified, they can often be attributed not to lack of capacity, but lack of political will. Reviewing seven examples of public education in developing countries, this research shows that, in direct contrast to widely disseminated ideas, public education can be the most effective, efficient, and transformative approach to education, and, crucially, it is possible to develop quality public education everywhere.

ESPAÑOL   FRANÇAIS