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Dans le présent rapport, la Rapporteuse spéciale examine comment le droit à l’éducation et les engagements pris dans le cadre des objectifs de développement durable donnent des orientations au sujet de la gouvernance des systèmes nationaux d’éducation. Elle se penche sur la façon dont le droit à l’éducation devrait être intégré dans la gouvernance de l’éducation. Dans ce contexte, il peut être considéré que la gouvernance comprend les lois, les politiques, les institutions, les procédures et pratiques administratives, les mécanismes de surveillance et de responsabilisation, et les procédures judiciaires ayant trait à l’éducation. Une approche fondée sur les droits devrait être adoptée non seulement pour garantir le respect du principe de non-discrimination et l’accès de tous dans des conditions d’égalité, mais aussi pour faire en sorte que la priorité soit accordée aux apprenants qui ont été les plus difficiles à atteindre, y compris les membres de groupes vulnérables, même si cette démarche va à l’encontre de l’accent mis de longue date sur l’efficacité.

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En el presente informe, la Relatora Especial examina cómo ha de orientarse la gobernanza de los sistemas nacionales de educación teniendo en cuenta el derecho a la educación y los compromisos asumidos en virtud de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible. Analiza cómo incorporar el derecho a la educación en la gobernanza de la educación. En este contexto se entiende que la gobernanza comprende las leyes, las políticas, las instituciones, las prácticas y los procedimientos administrativos, los mecanismos de supervisión y rendición de cuentas y los procedimientos judiciales relacionados con la educación. Es menester adoptar un enfoque basado en los derechos no solo para incorporar los principios de no discriminación e igualdad de acceso para todos en la gobernanza de la educación, sino también para que se dé prioridad a aquellos alumnos a los que es más difícil llegar, incluidos los miembros de grupos vulnerables, aun cuando esas decisiones sean contrarias al enfoque tradicional centrado en la eficiencia.

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In the present report, the Special Rapporteur examines how the right to education, and the commitments made under the Sustainable Development Goals, provide guidance for governance in national education systems. She considers how the right to education should be mainstreamed into education governance. Governance in this context can be thought to include the laws, policies, institutions, administrative procedures and practices, monitoring and accountability mechanisms, and judicial procedures that are related to education. A rights-based approach should be adopted to ensure not only that nondiscrimination and equitable access for all are mainstreamed, but also that learners who have been the hardest to reach, including members of vulnerable groups, are prioritized, even if such decisions run counter to the traditional emphasis on efficiency.

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La Convention relative aux droits de l'enfant (CIDE) s'applique aux enfants de moins de 18 ans. Elle reconnaît l'éducation comme un droit à chaque enfant sur la base de l'égalité des chances. Son article 28 garantit la gratuité de l'enseignement primaire obligatoire pour tous, la gratuité progressive de l'enseignement secondaire qui devrait en tout état de cause être disponible et accessible à tous, et l'accessibilité à l'enseignement supérieur en fonction des capacités. Il énonce l'obligation de l'État de prendre des mesures concernant la fréquentation scolaire. Elle encourage la coopération internationale en matière d'éducation, en particulier l'élimination de l'analphabétisme et la favorisation de l'accès aux connaissances scientifiques et techniques. Son article 29 définit les objectifs de l'éducation et reconnaît également la liberté des parents de choisir le type d'éducation qu'ils veulent donner à leurs enfants et la liberté de créer et de diriger des établissements d'enseignement, conformément aux normes minimales fixées par l'État.
 
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Education is a fundamental human right of every woman, man and child. In states’ efforts to meet their commitments to making the right to education a reality for all, most have made impressive progress in recent decades. With new laws and policies that remove fees in basic education, significant progress has been made in advancing free education. This has led to tens of millions of children enrolling for the first time and the number of out of school children and adolescents falling by almost half since 2000. Important steps have also been taken with regard to gender parity and states have made efforts to raise the quality of education through improved teacher policies and a growing emphasis on learning outcomes. 

Despite these efforts, breaches of the right to education persist worldwide, illustrated perhaps most starkly by the fact that 262 million primary and secondary-aged children and youth are still out of school. Girls, persons with disabilities, those from disadvantaged backgrounds or rural areas, indigenous persons, migrants and national minorities are among those who face the worst discrimination, affecting both their right to go to school and their rights within schools.

To respond to the challenges, the Right to Education Initiative (RTE) with UNESCO have developed this handbook to guide action on ensuring full compliance with the right to education. Its objective is not to present the right to education as an abstract, conceptual, or purely legal concept, but rather to be action-oriented. The handbook will also be an important reference for those working towards the achievement of SDG4, by offering guidance on how to leverage legal commitment to the right to education as a strategic way to achieve this goal. 

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The Latin American Campaign for the Right to Education (CLADE, by its Spanish acronym) is a pluralistic network of civil society organizations with a presence in 18 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean, which promotes social mobilization and political advocacy to defend the human right to education. This collection of articles, essays and statements reflect on the vital role of public education in the region and the fault lines exposed by the pandemic, considering both the challenges public education in Latin America faces and possible solutions, alternatives and ways forward.

 

 

In working towards creating inclusive education systems, many countries have failed to address discrimination and exclusion on the basis of sexual orientation, gender identity, gender expression and
variations of sex characteristics. This is despite the fact that, as new data from Europe show, 54% of lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans and intersex youth surveyed had experienced bullying in school and 83% had witnessed some type of negative remarks addressed to someone else based on their sexual orientation, gender identity, gender expression or variations of sex characteristics. In many other parts of the world, conditions do not even allow such data to be collected. While several countries have begun implementing changes in laws and policies, school-level interventions, curricula, and parental or community engagement, others not only avoid addressing the issues but are even taking measures that further exclude. Governments aspiring to respect their commitment to the goal of equitable and inclusive education by 2030 must protect the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans and intersex learners, improve monitoring of school-based bullying and violence, and create a positive, supportive learning environment.

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