The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) was adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1966.

Article 13 is the most comprehensive article on the right to education. It recognises the universal right to education without discrimination of any kind and sets forward a framework to achieve the full realisation of this right, including: free compulsory primary education, generally available and accessible secondary education by the progressive introduction of free education, equal access to higher education on the basis if capacity, measures to literacy and quality improvement.

This Article also establishes the liberty of parents to choose the kind of education they want to give to their children and the liberty to establish and direct educational institutions, in conformity with minimum standards laid down by the State.

Article 14 relates to the obligation of the State to adopt a plan of action to secure free compulsory primary education if it is not yet the case.

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Year of publication: 
1966
Author(s): 
UN General Assembly