The International Labour Organization (ILO) is the UN special agency dealing with labour issues. The ILO has adopted an impressive array of conventions including some related to vocational training, teachers, child labour, and Indigenous Peoples' right to education.
This fundamental ILO Convention No. 138 seeks to protect against child labour. Article 2 sets forth a minimum age for employment that shall not be less than the age of completion of compulsory schooling. Article 6 states that this Convention does not apply to work done by children and young persons in school for general vocational or technical education but define conditions for this type of work.
This fundamental ILO Convention No. 182 requires States to ensure access to free basic education, and, wherever possible and appropriate, vocational training for all children removed from the worst forms of child labour.
ILO Convention No. 169 guarantees the right to education of Indigenous and Tribal Peoples in Independent Countries. According to Article 7, high priority shall be given to the level of education of the population concerned. Articles 21 and 22 refer to vocational training. Articles 26 to 31 refer to education. It states that they have the same opportunity to acquire education at all levels on an equal footing with the rest of the national community. Education programmes should be adapted to their needs and they should be taught in their mother tongue.
- Adoption: 27 June 1989
- Entry into force: 5 September 1991
- Ratifications: 22
- Interpretation: no but Indigenous & Tribal People's Rights in Practice - A Guide to ILO Convention No. 169 provides a better understanding on the implementation of this Convention, including in the field of education
- Monitoring mechanism: yes
- Complaint mechanism: yes