Showing 39 Results


Net enrolment rate is the number of children of official school age (based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997) who are enrolled in school as a percentage of the population of the corresponding official school age    

Comments:

A high net enrolment rate (NER) denotes a high degree of enrolment in education by the official school-age population. NERs below 100% provide a measure of the proportion of primary school age children who are not enrolled at the primary level. This difference does not necessarily indicate the percentage of students who are not enrolled at all in education, since some children may be enrolled at other levels of education. When the NER is compared with the gross enrolment ratio (GER) the difference between the two ratios highlights the incidence of under-aged and over-aged enrolment. The data for this indicator should be disaggregated to measure relative enjoyment across and between groups, for example boys compared to girls, persons with disabilities compared to the general population and those living in different regions of the country. Inequalities in enjoyment may constitute discrimination (Source: Sustainable Development Knowledge Platform, Net Enrolment Rate in Primary Education)

Available data:

Edstats (SEARCH: Series > Topics > Primary > Enrolment Rates)

Levels of disaggregation: Gender, Income, Minority, Region, Urban/Rural, Minority, Persons with Disabilities, Persons with HIV/AIDS, Migrants, Refugees and IDPs, Persons in Detention, Child Labourers, Child Soldiers, Public/Private
Human Rights Standards:

Article 13 (2) (a), International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Article 28 (1) (a), Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 17 (2), (Revised) European Social Charter; Article 13 (3) (a), Protocol of San Salvador; Article 11 (3) (a), African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child; Article 41 (2), Arab Charter

GER is the ratio of total enrolment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that corresponds to the same level of education. GER can exceed 100% due to the inclusion of over-aged and under-aged students, because of early or late school entrance, and grade repetition. For the tertiary level, the population used is the 5-year age group starting from the official secondary school graduation age (Source: UIS, Education Indicators - Technical Guidelines: p.9)

Comments:

Gross enrolment ratio is widely used to show the general level of participation in a given level of education. It can also be used as a complementary indicator to net enrolment rate (NER) by indicating the extent of over-aged and under-aged enrolment. The data for this indicator should be disaggregated to measure relative enjoyment across and between groups, for example boys compared to girls, persons with disabilities compared to the general population and those living in different regions of the country. Inequalities in enjoyment may constitute discrimination (Source: UIS, Education Indicators - Technical Guidelines: p.9)

Available data:

Edstats

Levels of disaggregation: Level of Education, Gender, Income, Minority, Region, Urban/Rural, Persons with Disabilities, Persons with HIV/AIDS, Migrants, Refugees and IDPs, Persons in Detention, Child Labourers, Child Soldiers, Public/Private
Human Rights Standards:

Article 13 (2), International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Article 28 (1), Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 24 (2), Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities; Article 7 (2) (c), ILO Convention 182; Article 17 (2), (Revised) European Social Charter; Article 13 (3), Protocol of San Salvador; Article 11 (3), African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, Article 13 (4), African Youth Charter; Article 41 (2), Arab Charter; Article 4, UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education

Total primary (or secondary) school age children who are not enrolled (because they never enrolled or because they dropped-out) in primary or secondary education expressed as a percentage of the official school-age population corresponding to the primary (or secondary) level in a given school-year. Children enrolled in pre-primary education are excluded and considered out-of-school (Source: UIS)

Comments:

A high rate of out-of-school children indicates that the State is failing to achieve universal primary and secondary education. Data for this indicator should be disaggregated to show which groups are excluded from education. If the data show, for example, that girls are more likely to be out-of-school or that children with disabilities are less likely to be enrolled or drop-out than the general population, this is an indication that the State's efforts to achieve universal primary (and secondary education) are insufficient and in some cases, discriminatory

Available data:

UIS has data on out-of-school rates at the primary and lower secondary levels (Education>Out-of-school children). Alternatively, see Universal Primary and Secondary Education by 2030! But Where Do We Stand Today? - Explore the Data for a visual representation of UIS data. The All in School Initiative also provides data by region and the barriers to accessing education

Levels of disaggregation: Level of Education, Gender, Income, Minority, Region, Urban/Rural, Minority, Persons with Disabilities, Persons with HIV/AIDS, Migrants, Refugees and IDPs, Persons in Detention, Child Labourers, Child Soldiers
Human Rights Standards:

Article 13 (2), International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Article 28 (1), Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 24 (2), Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities; Article 7 (2) (c), ILO Convention 182; Article 17 (2), (Revised) European Social Charter; Article 13 (3), Protocol of San Salvador; Article 11 (3), African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, Article 13 (4), African Youth Charter; Article 41 (2), Arab Charter; Article 4, UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education

Primary completion rate is the percentage of students completing the last year of primary school. The UN defines it as: the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as percentage of the total population of the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary. The ratio can exceed 100% due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late / early and / or repeat grades

Comments:

A primary completion rate of less than 100% is indicative of a problem in the State's obligation to fulfil the right to free and compulsory primary education. The data for this indicator should be disaggregated to measure relative enjoyment across and between groups, for example boys compared to girls, persons with disabilities compared to the general population and those living in different regions of the country. Inequalities in enjoyment may constitute discrimination

Levels of disaggregation: Gender, Income, Minority, Region, Urban/Rural, Minority, Persons with Disabilities, Persons with HIV/AIDS, Migrants, Refugees and IDPs, Persons in Detention, Child Labourers, Child Soldiers, Public/Private
Human Rights Standards:

Article 13 (2) (a), International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Article 28 (1) (a) (e), Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 24 (2), Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities; Article 7 (2) (c), ILO Convention 182; Article 17 (2), (Revised) European Social Charter; Article 13 (3) (a) (d), Protocol of San Salvador; Article 11 (3) (a) (d), African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, Article 13 (4) (a) (c), African Youth Charter; Article 41 (2), Arab Charter; Article 4 (a), UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education

Technical / vocational enrolment as a percentage of total secondary enrolment is the percentage of secondary students enrolled in technical / vocational education programmes, including teacher training programmes

Comments:

Low technical / vocational enrolment as a percentage of total secondary enrolment may suggest that technical and vocational secondary education is not made made generally available and accessible to all, in contravention of international human rights standards. The data for this indicator should be disaggregated to measure relative enjoyment across and between groups, for example boys compared to girls, persons with disabilities compared to the general population and those living in different regions of the country. Inequalities in enjoyment may constitute discrimination

Available data:

Edstats 

Levels of disaggregation: Gender, Income, Minority, Region, Urban/Rural, Persons with Disabilities, Persons with HIV/AIDS, Migrants, Refugees and IDPs, Persons in Detention, Public/Private, Child Labourers, Child Soldiers
Human Rights Standards:

Articles 13 (2) (b) & 6 (2), International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Article 28 (1) (b), Convention on the Rights of the Child; Articles 9, 10 & 17 (2), (Revised) European Social Charter; Article 13 (3) (b), Protocol of San Salvador; Article 11 (3) (b), African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child; Article 31 (2), Arab Charter, UNESCO Convention on Technical and Vocational Training; Article 7 (2) (c), ILO Convention 182; Article 22 (2), ILO Convention 169; Article 14 (1), European Union Charter of Fundamental Rights

Secondary completion rate is the total number of graduates from the last grade of secondary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population of the age group that officially corresponds to that of graduating from secondary schools

Comments:

A low level of this indicator may be indicative that the State is not taking all necessary steps to progressively realise universal secondary education according to maximum available resources. The data for this indicator should be disaggregated to measure relative enjoyment across and between groups, for example boys compared to girls, persons with disabilities compared to the general population and those living in different regions of the country. Inequalities in enjoyment may constitute discrimination

Available data:

EdStats

Levels of disaggregation: Gender, Income, Minority, Region, Urban/Rural, Persons with Disabilities, Persons with HIV/AIDS, Migrants, Refugees and IDPs, Persons in Detention, Child Soldiers, Public/Private, Child Labourers
Human Rights Standards:

Article 13 (2) (b), International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Article 28 (1) (b), Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 24 (2), Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities; Article 4 (a), UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education, Article 11 (3) (b), African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child; Article 13 (4) (b), African Youth Charter; Article 13 (3) (b), Additional Protocol to the American Convention on Human Rights, Article 13 (3) (b), Protocol of San Salvador; Article 17 (2), (Revised) European Social Charter

Gross tertiary graduation ratio (only applicable for first degrees) is the total number of graduates in tertiary International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 5A programmes expressed as a percentage of the total population of the age at which students theoretically finish their first degree programme, in a given country

Comments:

A low level of this indicator may be indicative that the State is not taking all necessary steps to make higher education equally accessible to all, on the basis of capacity, by every appropriate means. The data for this indicator should be disaggregated to measure relative enjoyment across and between groups, for example boys compared to girls, persons with disabilities compared to the general population and those living in different regions of the country. Inequalities in enjoyment may constitute discrimination

Available data:

UIS

Levels of disaggregation: Gender, Income, Minority, Region, Urban/Rural, Persons with Disabilities, Persons with HIV/AIDS, Migrants, Refugees and IDPs, Public/Private
Human Rights Standards:

Article 13 (2) (c), International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Article 28 (1) (c), Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 13 (3) (c), Protocol of San Salvador; Article 11 (3) (c), African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child

Percentage of population aged 15 years and over who can, with understanding, both read and write, a short simple statement on his / her everyday life. Generally, ‘literacy’ also encompasses ‘numeracy’, the ability to make simple arithmetic calculations (Source: UIS: p.3)

Comments:

A high illiteracy rate (or low literacy rate) suggests the existence of serious shortcomings in the primary education system and / or literacy programmes that have prevented a large proportion of the population from acquiring the ability to use the written word (and making simple arithmetic calculations) in daily life and to continue learning. It is important to remember that literacy rates look backwards, if you encounter a low literacy rate you should make an assessment of factors that may have affected education in the past, such as inadequate financing, armed conflict and other emergency situations, etc. The data for this indicator should be disaggregated to measure relative enjoyment across and between groups, for example boys compared to girls, persons with disabilities compared to the general population and those living in different regions of the country. Inequalities in enjoyment may constitute discrimination

Available data:

Edstats 

Levels of disaggregation: Gender, Income, Minority, Region, Urban/Rural, Persons with Disabilities, Persons with HIV/AIDS, Migrants, Refugees and IDPs, Age
Human Rights Standards:

Article 28 (3), Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 13 (2), International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Article 10 (e), Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women; Article 41 (1), Arab Charter; Article 12 (2) (a), Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa; Article 13 (4) (g), African Youth Charter; Articles 34 (h) & 50, Charter of the Organisation of American States

The percentage of students who achieve the lowest passable grade or above in examinations taking place in the final year of secondary school (Source: Audrey Chapman (2007) Development of Indicators for Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: The Rights to Education, Participation in Cultural Life and Access to the Benefits of Science: p.152)

Comments:

A low percentage may be indicative of poor learning outcomes, which in turn may be indicative of an inadequate quality of education. The data for this indicator should be disaggregated to measure relative enjoyment across and between groups, for example boys compared to girls, persons with disabilities compared to the general population and those living in different regions of the country. Inequalities in enjoyment may constitute discrimination

Levels of disaggregation: Gender, Income, Minority, Region, Urban/Rural, Persons with Disabilities, Persons with HIV/AIDS, Migrants, Refugees and IDPs, Persons in Detention, Public/Private, Child Labourers
Human Rights Standards:

Article 13 (1) (2) (3) (a), African Youth Charter; Article 29 (1) (a), Convention on the Rights of the Child

Mean performance on the reading scale is the mean reading score for students in national or international assessments

Comments:

A low mean value may be indicative of a general problem in the quality of education. The data for this indicator should be disaggregated to measure relative enjoyment across and between groups, for example boys compared to girls and those living in different regions of the country. Inequalities in enjoyment may constitute discrimination. For this indicator it is important, when monitoring the right to education of persons with disabilities, to disaggregate the data by type of disability because for some types of disability there should be equality of learning outcomes, whilst for others measuring learning outcomes is not an adequate measure of the quality of education

Available data:

For data on learning outcomes, as measured by international assessments, see Edstats (SEARCH: Series > Topics > Learning Outcomes)

Levels of disaggregation: Gender, Income, Minority, Region, Urban/Rural, Persons with Disabilities, Persons with HIV/AIDS, Migrants, Refugees and IDPs, Persons in Detention, Public/Private, Child Labourers, Level of Education
Human Rights Standards:

Article 13, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Article 28, Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 17 (2), (Revised) European Social Charter; Article 13, Protocol of San Salvador; Article 11, African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child; Article 13, African Youth Charter; Article 41 (2), Arab Charter; Article 4, UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education

Mean performance on the mathematics scale is the mean mathematics score for students in national or international assessments

Comments:

A low mean value may be indicative of a general problem in the quality of education. The data for this indicator should be disaggregated to measure relative enjoyment across and between groups, for example boys compared to girls and those living in different regions of the country. Inequalities in enjoyment may constitute discrimination. For this indicator it is important, when monitoring the right to education of persons with disabilities, to disaggregate the data by type of disability because for some types of disability there should be equality of learning outcomes, whilst for others measuring learning outcomes is not an adequate measure of the quality of education

Available data:

For data on learning outcomes, as measured by international assessments, see Edstats (SEARCH: Series > Topics > Learning Outcomes)

Levels of disaggregation: Gender, Income, Minority, Region, Urban/Rural, Persons with Disabilities, Persons with HIV/AIDS, Migrants, Refugees and IDPs, Persons in Detention, Public/Private, Child Labourers, Level of Education
Human Rights Standards:

Article 13, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Article 28, Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 17 (2), (Revised) European Social Charter; Article 13, Protocol of San Salvador; Article 11, African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child; Article 13, African Youth Charter; Article 41(2), Arab Charter; Article 4, UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education

Mean performance on the science scale is the mean science score for students in national or international assessments

Comments:

A low mean performance on the science scale may be indicative of a general problem in the quality of education. The data for this indicator should be disaggregated to measure relative enjoyment across and between groups, for example boys compared to girls and those living in different regions of the country. Inequalities in enjoyment may constitute discrimination. For this indicator it is important, when monitoring the right to education of persons with disabilities, to disaggregate the data by type of disability because for some types of disability there should be equality of learning outcomes, whilst for others measuring learning outcomes is not an adequate measure of the quality of education

Available data:

For data on learning outcomes, as measured by international assessments, see Edstats (SEARCH: Series > Topics > Learning Outcomes)

Levels of disaggregation: Gender, Income, Minority, Region, Urban/Rural, Persons with Disabilities, Persons with HIV/AIDS, Migrants, Refugees and IDPs, Persons in Detention, Public/Private, Child Labourers, Level of Education
Human Rights Standards:

Article 13, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Article 28, Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 17 (2), (Revised) European Social Charter; Article 13, Protocol of San Salvador; Article 11, African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child; Article 13, African Youth Charter; Article 41 (2), Arab Charter; Article 4, UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education

Percentage of students at the lowest level of reading proficiency is the percentage of students at the lowest level of proficiency on the reading scale in national or international assessments

Comments:

A high value indicates that a significant proportion of children are not enjoying education of good quality. For this indicator it is important to disaggregate the data and look at which marginalised groups make up the percentage of students at the lowest level of reading proficiency. Care must be taken when interpreting data for persons with disabilities. You should look at the data disaggregated by type of disability and assess whether the test is an accurate measure of the quality of education for persons with that particular disability

Available data:

For data on learning outcomes, as measured by international assessments, see Edstats (SEARCH: Series > Topics > Learning Outcomes)

Levels of disaggregation: Gender, Income, Minority, Region, Urban/Rural, Persons with Disabilities, Persons with HIV/AIDS, Migrants, Refugees and IDPs, Persons in Detention, Public/Private, Child Labourers, Level of Education
Human Rights Standards:

Article 13, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Article 28, Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 17 (2), (Revised) European Social Charter; Article 13, Protocol of San Salvador; Article 11, African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child; Article 13, African Youth Charter; Article 41(2), Arab Charter; Article 4, UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education

Percentage of students at the lowest level of mathematics proficiency is the percentage of students at the lowest level of proficiency on the mathematics scale in national or international assessments

Comments:

A high percentage of students at the lowest level of mathematics proficiency reflects that a significant proportion of children are not enjoying education of good quality. For this indicator it is important to disaggregate the data and look at which marginalised groups make up the percentage of students at the lowest level of mathematics proficiency. Care must be taken when interpreting data for persons with disabilities. You should look at the data disaggregated by type of disability and assess whether the test is an accurate measure of the quality of education for persons with that particular disability

Available data:

For data on learning outcomes, as measured by international assessments, see Edstats (SEARCH: Series > Topics > Learning Outcomes)

Levels of disaggregation: Gender, Income, Minority, Region, Urban/Rural, Persons with Disabilities, Persons with HIV/AIDS, Migrants, Refugees and IDPs, Persons in Detention, Public/Private, Child Labourers, Level of Education
Human Rights Standards:

Article 13, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Article 28, Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 17 (2), (Revised) European Social Charter; Article 13, Protocol of San Salvador; Article 11, African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child; Article 13, African Youth Charter; Article 41 (2), Arab Charter; Article 4, UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education

Percentage of students at the lowest level of science proficiency is the percentage of students at the lowest level of proficiency on the science scale in national or international assessments

Comments:

A high percentage of students at the lowest level of science proficiency reflects that a significant proportion of children are not an enjoying education of good quality. For this indicator it is important to disaggregate the data and look at which marginalised groups make up the percentage of students at the lowest level of science proficiency. Care must be taken when interpreting data for persons with disabilities. You should look at the data disaggregated by type of disability and assess whether the test is an accurate measure of the quality of education for persons with that particular disability

Available data:

For data on learning outcomes, as measured by international assessments, see Edstats (SEARCH: Series > Topics > Learning Outcomes)

Levels of disaggregation: Gender, Income, Minority, Region, Urban/Rural, Persons with Disabilities, Persons with HIV/AIDS, Migrants, Refugees and IDPs, Persons in Detention, Public/Private, Child Labourers, Level of Education
Human Rights Standards:

Article 13, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Article 28, Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 17 (2), (Revised) European Social Charter; Article 13, Protocol of San Salvador; Article 11, African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child; Article 13, African Youth Charter; Article 41 (2), Arab Charter; Article 4, UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education

Repetition rate is the proportion of pupils from a cohort enrolled in a given grade at a given school year of primary or secondary education who study in the same grade in the following school year (Source: UIS)

Comments:

A high repetition rate can be symptomatic of problems in the education system that affect the right to education, related to a variety of issues, such as the poor quality of instruction, the relevance and quality of the content of education, its cultural appropriateness, the safety of the school and the extent to which the education is adapted locally to suit specific contexts. The data for this indicator should be disaggregated to measure relative enjoyment across and between groups, for example boys compared to girls and those living in different regions of the country. Inequalities in enjoyment may constitute discrimination

Available data:

For data on repetition rates at the primary level, see Edstats

Levels of disaggregation: Level of Education, Gender, Income, Minority, Region, Urban/Rural, Persons with Disabilities, Persons with HIV/AIDS, Migrants, Refugees and IDPs, Persons in Detention, Public/Private, Child Labourers
Human Rights Standards:

Article 13, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Article, 28 Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 17 (2), (Revised) European Social Charter; Article 13, Protocol of San Salvador; Article 11, African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child; Article 13, African Youth Charter; Article 41 (2), Arab Charter; Article 4, UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education

Private enrolment refers to pupils or students enrolled at a given level of education in institutions that are not operated by a public authority but controlled and managed, whether for profit or not, by a private body, such as a non-governmental organisation, religious body, special interest group, foundation or business enterprise

Comments:

A high level of this indicator may be indicative of a poor quality of education in public schools, which typically has a particularly detrimental effect on poor children, whose families often cannot afford to pay private school fees. Furthermore, an increasing percentage over time of private enrolment at a given educational level could be indicative of worsening quality of education in public schools. The data for this indicator should be disaggregated to measure enrolment across and between groups, particularly boys compared to girls and persons with disabilities compared to the general population. This is important because a high differential in enrolment rates between and across groups may be indicative of discrimination in access to private education for certain groups. You should also collect disaggregated data by income as this can tell you about the socio-economic background of the students that the school targets

Available data:

UIS has data for enrolment rates in private institutions for all levels of education (Education>Participation>Enrolment>Enrolment by type of institution)

Levels of disaggregation: Level of Education, Gender, Income, Minority, Region, Urban/Rural, Persons with Disabilities, Migrants, Refugees and IDPs
Human Rights Standards:

Article 13 (4), International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Article 29 (2), Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 13 (5), Protocol of San Salvador; Article 11 (7), African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child; Article 14 (3), European Union Charter of Fundamental Rights; Article 2, Op Protocol 1, European Convention on Human Rights; Article 17 (1) (a), (Revised) European Social Charter; Article 13, Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities; Article 27 (3), ILO Convention 169

Percentage of household expenditure on education is the total average cost per month per family for a student in a school as a percentage of total household expenditure. Examples of educational expenses include: enrolment fees, tuition fees, uniforms, school supplies and educational materials, school meals and school transport and other payments necessary to effectively access education, such as payment for water, security etc.

Comments:

A high percentage of household expenditure on education may reflect a problem in the economic accessibility of public schools. It may also constitute a violation of the right to free education

Levels of disaggregation: Level of Education, Gender, Income, Region, Urban/Rural, Public/Private, Persons with Disabilities
Human Rights Standards:

Articles 23 (3) & 24( 2), Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities; Article 13 (2), International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Article 28 (1), Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 17 (2), (Revised) European Social Charter; Article 13 (3), Protocol of San Salvador; Article 11 (3), African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child; Article 13 (4) (a) (b), African Youth Charter; Article 41 (2), Arab Charter; Article 31 (2), Asean Human Rights Declaration; Article 14 (2), European Union Charter of Fundamental Rights

Marginalised groups are all those excluded from governmental policy and access to education including: women and girls, indigenous peoples and minorities, persons with disabilities, persons with HIV / AIDS, child labourers, persons in detention, migrants, refugees and IDPs, and persons living in poverty (Source: Audrey Chapman (2007) Development of Indicators for Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: The Rights to Education, Participation in Cultural Life and Access to the Benefits of Science: p.145)

Comments:

Special funding systems (eg cash transfers) are often necessary to ensure full access to education for students from marginalised groups

Levels of disaggregation: Level of Education, Gender, Minority, Region, Urban/Rural, Persons with HIV/AIDS, Migrants, Refugees and IDPs, Persons Living in Poverty, Persons with Disabilities, Child Labourers, Child Soldiers
Human Rights Standards:

Articles 13 (2) (b) & (e), International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Article 28 (1) (b), Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 10 (d), Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women; Article 11 (3) (e), African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child; Article 12 (1) (a), Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights of Women; Article 10 (4) (b), (Revised) European Social Charter; Article 14 (4) (l), African Youth Charter

Out-of-school children are all those excluded from education at a given level of education

Comments:

Check whether there are specific programmes for this purpose, whether they respond to a thorough diagnostic of the specific reasons in the country amongst specific groups for drop-outs and out-of school children; and whether these programmes are well-funded. If disaggregated data on numbers of out-of-school children shows that children from specific marginalised groups are disproportionately represented, check whether the State has adopted specific measures to encourage school attendance amongst children from those groups

Human Rights Standards:

Article 13 (2), International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Article 28 (1) (a) (e), Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 24 (2), Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities; Article 7 (2) (c) (d), ILO Convention 182; Article 17 (2), (Revised) European Social Charter; Article 13 (3) (a) (d), Protocol of San Salvador; Articles 11 (3) (a) (d) (e) & 6, African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child; Articles 13 (4) (c) (h), African Youth Charter; Article 41 (2), Arab Charter; Article 10 (f), Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women

Mechanisms by which stakeholders can contribute to the formulation and / or implementation of strategies to identify out-of-school children include: perception surveys, focus groups and public campaigns.

Comments:

Incorporating the input of parents, children and community leaders in the formulation and implementation of strategies for encouraging school attendance can often make these strategies more effective.

Human Rights Standards:

Article 13 (2), International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Article 28 (1) (a) (e), Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 24 (2), Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities; Article 7 (2) (c) (d), ILO Convention 182; Article 17 (2), (Revised) European Social Charter; Article 13 (3) (a) (d), Protocol of San Salvador; Articles 11 (3) (a) (d) (e) & 6, African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child; Article 13 (4) (c) (h), African Youth Charter; Article 41 (2), Arab Charter; Article 10 (f), Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women

An example of such a measure is a programme that adapts education to students' specific circumstances to prevent further drop-outs

Comments:

Previously out-of-school children may require additional support given that they have already missed schooling and are, as a result, more likely to drop-out of school again

Human Rights Standards:

Article 13 (2), International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Article 28 (1), Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 17 (2), (Revised) European Social Charter; Article 13 (3), Protocol of San Salvador; Article 11 (3), African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child

Comments:

In order to ensure that education is compliant with the aims of education and of good quality, the learning materials used must not promote or depict discriminatory views

Human Rights Standards:

Article 13 (1), International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Article 29 (1), Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 10 (c), Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women; Article 13 (2), Protocol of San Salvador; Article 11 (2) (d), African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child; Articles 12 (1) (b) & (2) (b), Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa; Article 6 (b), Inter-American Convention on the Prevention, Punishment, and Eradication of Violence Against Women

Comments:

Monitoring whether teachers have a good command of the language in which they teach is necessary to ensure education of good quality

Human Rights Standards:

Article 13 (2), International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Articles 28 (1) & 29 (1) (c), Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 17 (2), (Revised) European Social Charter; Article 13 (3), Protocol of San Salvador; Article 11 (3), African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child; Article 24 (3) (4), Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities; Article 28, ILO Convention 169; Article 50, Geneva Convention IV; Article 20 (1) (f), African Youth Charter; Article 8, European Charter for Regional or Minority; Article 14, Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities

This indicator measure the extent to which and which aspects of the right to education are guaranteed in law at the highest level

Comments:

Does the constitution provide for free and compulsory primary education? Does it provide for progressively free secondary education, including technical and vocational education? Does it provide for progressively free tertiary education on the basis of capacity? Does it provide for basic education for adults who have not received or completed the whole period of their primary education?

Human Rights Standards:

Article 2 (1), International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

This indicator examines whether discrimination, both direct and indirect, are legally prohibited

Comments:

Check on which grounds discrimination is forbidden: age, gender, race, ethnicity, colour, origin, language, status, opinion, sexual orientation, disability, socio-economic status, and other pertinent grounds

Human Rights Standards:

Article 5 (e) (v), International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination; Article 10, Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women; Article 24 (1), Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities; Article 12 (1) (a), Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa

(Source: Audrey Chapman (2007) Development of Indicators for Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: The Rights to Education, Participation in Cultural Life and Access to the Benefits of Science: p.145)

Comments:

Check if the legislation makes provision for the necessary equipment and support to enable students with disabilities to attend school

Human Rights Standards:

Articles 4 (1) (a) (b) (d) (e), 2, 3, 4, 5 & 24, Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities; Article 13, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Paras 13, 16, & 35, CESCR General Comment 5; Para 59, CESCR General Comment 13; Article 3 (1) (a), Inter-American Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Persons with Disabilities

This indicator measures the rate of children with disabilities enrolled in mainstream schools in a given level of education as a percentage of the total number of children with disabilities in that level of education 

Comments:

Children with disabilities should not be excluded from the general education system on the basis of disability

Levels of disaggregation: Type of Disability, Level of Education, Region, Urban/Rural
Human Rights Standards:

Article 13 (2), International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Article 28 (1), Convention on the Rights of the Child; Paras 66 & 67 of Committee on the Rights of the Child GC 9; Article 24 (2), Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities; Articles 17 (2) & 15 (1), (Revised) European Social Charter; Article 13 (3), Protocol of San Salvador; Article 11 (3), African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child; Article 7 (2) (c), ILO Convention 182; Article 13 (4) (a) (b), African Youth Charter; Articles 40 & 41(2) Arab Charter

Comments:

Without such special funding system, it may not be possible for some children with disabilities to have effective access to education

Human Rights Standards:

Article 13 (2) (e), International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Articles 28 (1) & 23(c), Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 24 (2), Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities; Articles 17 (2), 15 (1) & 10 (5) (b), (Revised) European Social Charter; Article 13 (3), Protocol of San Salvador; Article 11 (3), African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child; Article 13 (4) (a) (b), African Youth Charter; Articles 40 & 41 (2) Arab Charter

Reasonable accommodation means necessary and appropriate modification and adjustments not imposing a disproportionate or undue burden, where needed in a particular case, to ensure to persons with disabilities the enjoyment or exercise on an equal basis with others of all human rights and fundamental freedoms

Comments:

Lack of reasonable accommodation measures may impair the access of children with disabilities to mainstream schools

Human Rights Standards:

Articles 24 (2) (c) & (5), Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities; Article 23 (a), Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa; Article 3 (1), Inter-American Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Persons with Disabilities; Article 40, Arab Charter

This indicator measures the percentage of teachers in mainstream schools who have one or more children with disabilities who are specifically trained to teach children with disabilities out of the total number of teachers in such schools teaching children with disabilities

Comments:

Such training shall incorporate disability awareness and the use of appropriate augmentative and alternative modes, means and formats of communication (eg sign language and / or Braille), educational techniques and materials to support persons with disabilities

Levels of disaggregation: Type of Disability, Level of Education, Region, Urban/Rural, Public/Private
Human Rights Standards:

Article 29, Convention on the Rights of the Child; Paras 62 & 67 of Committee on the Rights of the Child General Comment 9; Article 13, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Para 35 of CESCR General Comment; Article 24 (4), Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities

Special support may include, inter alia, special working conditions such as additional pay and a lower teacher / pupil ratio

Comments:

Teachers in mainstream schools who have pupils with disabilities need special support to allow them to provide the necessary support to those children and to help them integrate into classes

Levels of disaggregation: Level of Education, Region, Urban/Rural
Human Rights Standards:

Articles 24 (2) (c) (3) (4) & (5), Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities; Article 13, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Para 35, CESCR General Comment 5; Article 29, Convention on the Rights of the Child; Paras 62 & 67, Committee on the Rights of the Child General Comment 9

This indicator measures the rate of children with disabilities enrolled in special schools at a given level of education as a percentage of the total number of children with disabilities at that level of education

Comments:

A significantly high percentage of children with disabilities enrolled in special schools may reflect that the State is not making sufficient efforts for reasonable accommodation of children with disabilities in mainstream schools. A significantly low percentage may reflect that the State does not provide sufficient special schools for children with disabilities who cannot be integrated in mainstream schools

Levels of disaggregation: Type of Disability, Level of Education, Region, Urban/Rural, Public/Private
Human Rights Standards:

Article 28 (1), Convention on the Rights of the Child; Para 67 of Committee on the Rights of the Child General Comment 9; Article 13 (2); International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Article 24; Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities; Articles 15 (1) & 17 (2), (Revised) European Social Charter; Article 13 (3) (e), Protocol of San Salvador; Article 13, African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child; Article 13 (4) (g), African Youth Charter

Comments:

Such complaint mechanisms are necessary to ensure that children with disabilities are only sent by the State to study in special schools under strict conditions which are clearly and strictly set

Human Rights Standards:

Article 24 (2), Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities

This indicator measures the average household expenditure on education, as a percentage of their total expenditure in the last 12 months

Comments:

If the percentage of household expenditure on education for households with children with disabilities is significantly high, check whether the State provides special funding to households with children with disabilities, so that the burden of sending them to school is not prohibitively high

Levels of disaggregation: Public/Private
Human Rights Standards:

Articles 23 (3) & 24 (2), Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities; Article 13 (2), International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Article 28 (1), Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 17 (2), (Revised) European Social Charter; Article 13 (3), Protocol of San Salvador; Article 11 (3), African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child; Article 13 (4) (a) (b), African Youth Charter; Article 41 (2), Arab Charter; Article 31 (2), ASEAN Human Rights Declaration; Article 14 (2), European Union Charter of Fundamental Rights

This indicator is the number of complaints regarding issues related to the right to education in the last 12 months. Issues include, inter alia availability or accessibility of primary education, funding of primary education, availability or accessibility of secondary education, accessibility of higher education, discrimination issues, registration or closing of private schools and parents’ rights to ensure the religious and moral education of their children in conformity with their own convictions (Source: Audrey Chapman (2007) Development of Indicators for Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: The Rights to Education, Participation in Cultural Life and Access to the Benefits of Science: p.149)

Comments:

A very low number of administrative complaints on education rights may be indicative of the lack of adequate access to administrative complaint mechanisms rather than a lack of problems related to the right to education. Conversely, a very high number of administrative complaints may be indicative of adequate access to administrative complaint mechanisms, but at the same time of serious problem in the education system itself. If the focus of the monitoring exercise is a specific marginalised group, check the number of complaints related to that group

Levels of disaggregation: Gender, Region, Urban/Rural, Public/Private, Minority, Persons with Disabilities, Persons with HIV/AIDS, Migrants, Refugees and IDPs, Persons in Detention
Human Rights Standards:

Article 13, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Article 28, Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 17 (2), (Revised) European Social Charter; Article 13, Protocol of San Salvador; Article 11, African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child; Article 13, African Youth Charter; Article 41 (2), Arab Charter; Article 4, UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education.

Provisions on effective remedies: Article 2 (3), International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; Article 2, Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women; Article 6, International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination; Article 7, African Charter; Article 25, American Convention on Human Rights; Article 13, European Convention on Human Rights

This indicator measures the proportion of complaints that have been investigated by an administrative body in the last 12 months

Comments:

A low value of this indicator would be indicative of an inadequate mechanism to investigate complaints on the right to education. If the focus of the monitoring exercise is a specific marginalised group, check the number of complaints related to that group

Levels of disaggregation: Gender, Region, Urban/Rural, Public/Private, Minority, Persons with Disabilities, Persons with HIV/AIDS, Migrants, Refugees and IDPs, Persons in Detention
Human Rights Standards:

Article 13, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Article 28, Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 17 (2), (Revised) European Social Charter; Article 13, Protocol of San Salvador; Article 11, African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child; Article 13, African Youth Charter; Article 41 (2), Arab Charter; Article 4, UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education.

Provisions on effective remedies: Article 2 (3), International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; Article 2, Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women; Article 6, International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination; Article 7, African Charter; Article 25, American Convention on Human Rights; Article 13, European Convention on Human Rights

Number of court cases on educational rights is the number of cases that considered issues related to the right to education in the last five years. The issues to examine include, inter alia availability or accessibility of primary education, funding of primary education, availability or accessibility of secondary education, accessibility of higher education, discrimination issues, registration or closing of private schools and parents’ rights to ensure the religious and moral education of their children in conformity with their own convictions (Source: Audrey Chapman (2007) Development of Indicators for Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: The Rights to Education, Participation in Cultural Life and Access to the Benefits of Science: p.149)

Comments:

A very low number of court cases on education rights may be indicative of the lack of adequate access to the justice system rather than a lack of problems related to the right to education. Conversely, a very high number of court cases may be indicative of adequate access to the judicial system, but at the same time of serious problems in the education system itself. If the focus of the monitoring exercise is a specific marginalised group, check the number of court cases related to that group

Levels of disaggregation: Gender, Region, Urban/Rural, Public/Private, Minority, Persons with Disabilities, Persons with HIV/AIDS, Migrants, Refugees and IDPs, Persons in Detention
Human Rights Standards:

Article 13, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Article 28, Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 17 (2), (Revised) European Social Charter; Article 13, Protocol of San Salvador; Article 11, African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child; Article 13, African Youth Charter; Article 41 (2), Arab Charter; Article 4, UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education.

Provisions on effective remedies: Article 2 (3), International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; Article 2, Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women; Article 6, International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination; Article 7, African Charter; Article 25, American Convention on Human Rights; Article 13, European Convention on Human Rights

This indicator measures the proportion of court cases related to the right to education that have been adjudicated against the State in the last 5 years

Comments:

A very low value of this indicator may be indicative of a lack of judicial independence vis-à-vis the government

Levels of disaggregation: Gender, Region, Urban/Rural, Public/Private, Minority, Persons with Disabilities, Persons with HIV/AIDS, Migrants, Refugees and IDPs, Persons in Detention